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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (67)
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1

Articulation

Where two bones meet

2

Functions of Joints

Mobility
Stability

3

Two Classifications

Functional
Structural

4

Functional Classification

Based on
-Amount of movement joint allows

5

3 Functional Classification

Arthro-Joint
-Synarthroses- Syn- Doesn't Move
-Amphiarthroses- Amph- Little Movement
-Diathroses- Di- Freely Moveable

6

Structural Classification

Based on
-Material binding bones together
-Presence/absence of joint cavity
--Joint Cavity- Space between joint

7

3 Structural Classifications

Fibrous Joint
Cartilaginous Joint
Synovial Joint

8

Fibrous Joints

Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue
No joint cavity
Most movable
-Depends on length of connective tissue fibers

9

3 Types of Fibrous Joints

Sutures
Syndesmoses
Gomphoses

10

Fibrous Joints: Sutures

-Rigid, interlocking joints
-Immovable joints for protection of brain
-Contain short connective tissues fibers
-Allow for growth during youth
-In middle age, sutures ossify and fuse

11

Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses

Bones connected by ligaments
Fiber length varies so movement varies
-Little to no movement at inferior tibiofibular joint
-Large amount of movement at interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna

12

Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses

-Peg-in-socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets
-Fibrous connections
-No movement at all

13

Cartilaginous Joints

Bones united by cartilage
No joint cavity
Very little movable

14

2 Types of Cartilaginous Joints

Synchondroses
Symphyses

15

Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses

Bar/Plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones
-Temporary epiphyseal plate joints
-Cartilage of 1st rib with manubrium

16

Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses

Fibrocartilage unites bone
-Hyaline cartilage present as articular cartilage
Strong flexible amphiarthroses

17

Synovial Joints

Bones are separated by fluid-filled joint cavity
All are diarthrotic
-Lots of movement
Includes:
-All limb joints
-Most joints of body

18

Synovial Joints: 6 Distinguishing Features

1. Articular Cartilage: Hyaline Cartilage
2. Joint (synovial) Cavity
3. Articular (joint) Capsule
4. Synovial Fluid
5. Different Types of Reinforcing Ligaments
6. Nerves and Blood Vessels

19

Articular (Joint) Capsule

Two layers
-External Fibrous Layer
--Dense irregular connective tissue
-Inner Synovial Membrane
--Loose connective tissue
--Makes synovial fluid

20

Synovial Fluid

-Viscous, slippery filtrate of plasma and hyaluronic acid
-Lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage
-Contains phagocytic cells to remove microbes and debris

21

Different Types of Reinforcing Ligaments

Capsular
-Thickest
Extracapsular
-Outside
Intracapsular
-Deep

22

Nerves and Blood Vessels

Nerve Fibers
-Detect pain
-Monitor joint position + stretch
Capillary beds supply filtrate for synovial fluid

23

Other Features of Some Synovial Joints (2)

Fatty Pads
Articular Discs (Menisci)

24

Fatty Pads

For cushioning between fibrous layer and synovial membrane or bone

25

Articular Discs (Menisci)

Fibrocartilage separates articular surfaces to improve "fit" of bone ends, stabilize joint, and reduce wear and tear

26

Structures Associated with Synovial Joints (2)

Bursae
Tendon Sheaths

27

Bursae

Sacs lined with synovial membrane
-Contains synovial fluid
Reduce friction

28

Tendon Sheaths

Elongated bursa wrapped completely around tendon subjected to friction

29

3 Stabilizing Factors at Synovial Joints

-Shapes of articular surfaces
-Ligament number and location
-Muscle tendons that cross joint

30

Synovial Joints: Movements Allowed

All muscles attach to bone or connective tissue at no fewer than two points
-Origin- Beginning
-Insertion- Ending
-Muscle contraction causes insertion to move toward origin
Movement occur along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes