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1

Tissues

Groups of cells similar in structure that perform common or related function

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Examples of Nervous Tissues

Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves

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Examples of Muscles Tissues

Skeletal , Cardiac, Smooth

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Examples of Epithelial Tissues

Lining of digestive tract organs and other hollow organs, skin surface

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Examples of Connective Tissue

Bones, Tendons, Fat and other soft padding

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Epithelial Tissues (Epithelium)

Forms boundaries
Two main types (by location)
-Covering and lining epithelium
-Glandular epithelium

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Epithelial Functions

Protection
Absorption
Filtration
Excretion
Secretion
Sensory Reception

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Characteristics of Epithelial

Orientation
Specialized contacts
Supported by connective tissues
Avascular, but innervated
Can regenerate

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Orientation of Epithelial Tissue

2 surfaces
-Apical- upper, free surface, exposed to exterior or cavity
-Basal- lower, attached
Both surfaces differ in structure and function

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Apical Surface

Smooth and slick
Most have microvilli to increase surface area
Some have cilia

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Basal Lamina

Adhesive sheet
Scaffolding for cell migration in wound repair

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Specialized Contacts of Epithelial Tissue

Form continuous sheets
Specialized contacts bind adjacent cells
-Tight Junctions
-Desmosomes

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Support of Epithelial

Connective Tissue
-Network of collage
Basement Membrane
-Basal lamina and reticular lamina
-Resists stretching and tearing
-Defines epithelial boundary

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Avasularity with Epithelial Tissue

No blood vessels
Supplied by nerve cells

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Regeneration in Epithelial Tissue

Highly regenerative
Stimulated by loss of apical-basal and lateral contacts

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Classification of Epithelia

All have 2 names
One indicates number of cell layers
-Simple epithelia- single layer of cells
-Stratified epithelia- two or more layers of cells
--Shape can change in different layers
One indicates shape of cell
-Squamous
-Cuboidal
-Columnar
In Stratified epithelia, epithelia is classified by cell shape in apical layer

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Squamous Cells

-Flattened and scalelike
-Nucleus flattened

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Cuboidal Cells

-Boxlike
-Nucleus elongated

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Columnar Cells

-Tall; column shaped
-Nucleus elongated

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Simple Epithelia

Absorption
Secretion
Filtration

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Stratified Epithelial Tissues

Two or more cell layers
Regenerated from below
More durable than simple epithelia
Protection is major role

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Most widespread of stratified epithelia
Free surface squamous
Deeper layers cuboidal or columnar
Located for wear and tear
Varied viability

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Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

Quite rare
Location- some sweat and mammary glands
Typically 2 cell layers thick
Only apical layer columnar

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Transitional Epithelium

Forms lining of hollow urinary organs
Basal layer cells are cuboidal or columnar
Ability to change shape with stretch
Apical cells vary in appearance

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Glandular Epithelia

Gland
-One or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid called a secretion
Classified by
-Site of product release
--endocrine or exocrine
Relative number of cells forming the gland
-unicellular (e.g. goblet cells) multicellular

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Endocrine Glands

Ductless glands
-Secretions not released into a duct
Secrete (by exocytosis) hormones that travel through lymph or blood to their specific target organs
Target organs respond in some characteristic way

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Exocrine Glands

Secretions released onto skin or into body cavities
More numerous than endocrine glands
Secrete products into ducts
Examples include mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands

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Unicellular Exocrine Glands

The only important unicellular glands are mucous cells and goblet cells
Found in epithelial linings of intestinal and respiratory tracts
All produce a substance that dissolves in water to form mucus

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Multicellular Exocrine Glands

Multicellular exocrine glands are composed of a duct and a secretory unit
Surrounded by supportive connective tissue
-Supplies blood and nerve fibers
-Extends into and divides glands into lobes

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Connective Tissue

Most abundant and widely distributed of primary tissues
4 main classes
-Connective Tissue Proper
-Cartilage
-Bone
-Blood