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1

Skeletal System (Fun Facts)

Composition- bones, cartilages, joints, ligaments
20% of body mass
Two major parts
-Axial
-Appendicular

2

Axial Skeleton

Consists of 80 bones
Three major regions
-Skull
-Vertebral Column
-Thoracic Cage

3

The Skull

Formed by 2 sets of bones
-Cranial Bones (Cranium)
-Facial Bones

4

Cranial Bones

Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity
-Cranial vault
-Cranial base: anterior, middle, and posterior fossae
Provide sites of attachment for head and neck muscles

5

Facial Bones

Framework of face
Cavities for special sense organs for sight, taste, and smell
Openings for air and food passage
Sites of attachment for teeth and muscles of facial expression

6

Skull Geography

Cranial cavity
Middle and internal ear cavities
Nasal cavity
Orbits
85 named openings
-Foramina, canals, fissures

7

Cranial Bones (Number)

8

8

Cranial Bones (Name)

Frontal Bone
Parietal Bones (2)
Occipital Bone
Temporal Bones (2)
Sphenoid Bone
Ethmoid Bone

9

Frontal Bone

Location
-Anterior portion of cranium
-Most of anterior cranial fossa
Superior walls of orbits
Contains air-filled frontal sinus

10

Parietal Bones and Major Associated Sutures

Superior and lateral aspects of cranial vault
Four sutures mark articulations of parietal bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones
-Coronal suture
-Sagittal suture
-Lambdoid suture
-Squamous suture

11

Coronal Suture

Separates frontal and parietal

12

Sagittal Suture

Separates 2 parietals

13

Lambdoid Suture

Separates occipital and parietal

14

Squamous Suture

Separates temporal and parietal

15

Occipital Bone

Location
-Most of skull's posterior wall and posterior cranial fossa
-Articulates with 1st vertebra
Sites of attachment for ligamentum nuchae and many neck and back muscles
Foramen magnum

16

Temporal Bones

Location
-Inferolateral aspects of skull and parts of cranial base

17

Sphenoid Bone

Complex, bat-shaped bone
Keystone bone
-Articulates with all other cranial bones

18

Ethmoid Bone

Deepest skull bone
Superior part of nasal septum, roof of nasal cavities
Contributes to medial wall of orbits

19

Sutural Bones

Tiny irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures

20

Facial Bones (Number)

14

21

Facial Bones (Name)

Mandible
Maxillary Bone
-Maxillae (2)
Zygomatic Bones (2)
Nasal Bones (2)
Lacrimal Bones (2)
Palatine Bones (2)
Vomer
Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)

22

Mandible

Lower jaw
Largest, strongest bone of face
Temporomandibular Joint
-Only freely movable joint in skull

23

Maxillary Bones

Medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton
Keystone Bones
-Articulate with all other facial bones except mandible
Top part of mouth where upper teeth attach

24

Zygomatic Bones

Cheekbones
Inferolateral margins of orbits

25

Nasal Bones

Form bridge of nose

26

Lacrimal Bones

In medial walls of orbits
Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac

27

Palatine Bones

Posterior one-third of hard palate
Posterolateral walls of the nasal cavity
Small part of the orbits

28

Vomer

Plow shaped
Inferior part of nasal septum

29

Orbits

Cavities that encase eyes and lacrimal glands
Sites of attachment for eye muscles
Formed by parts of seven bones

30

Nasal Cavity

Roof, lateral walls, and floor
Nasal septum of bone and hyaline cartilage
-Perpendicular plate of ethmoid
-Vomer
-Anterior septal cartilage