Chapter 15: Visceral Reflexes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15: Visceral Reflexes Deck (45)
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1

autonomic nervous system

a motor nervous system that controls viscera organs

2

autonomic nervous system carries out actions _____

involuntarily

3

Visceral reflexes make it all the way to the _______

brainstem

4

parasympathetic division

rest & digest
digestion and waste elimination

5

autonomic tone

normal background rate of activity that represents the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic systems as the body changes

6

parasympathetic tone

maintains smooth muscle tone in intestines

7

sympathetic tone

maintains blood pressure and keeps blood vessels constricted

8

ANS has components in the ___ and the ___such as what?

central and peripheral
nucleus of hypothalamus
motor neurons in spinal cord and peripheral ganglia

9

somatic vs. visceral motor pathway

somatic: myelinated axon reaches all the way to the skeletal muscle
visceral: must travel across two neurons to get to the target organ

10

What are the 2 signals in autonomic output pathways?

presynaptic neuron cell body in CNS
postsynaptic neuron cell body in peripheral ganglion (reaches target organ cell & takes longer)

11

Why does the postsynaptic neuron signal take longer?

because the cell loses its myelination

12

sympathetic division is also called the _____

thoracolumbar division (thoracic and lumbar regions)

13

sympathetic division has ____ preganglionic fibers which are found in the ___ ____and ____ postganglionic fibers

short;lateral horn; long

14

chain of ganglia

paravertebral ganglion

15

sympathetic division preganglionic fibers are _____ and _____ while the postganglionic fibers are ____ .

short myelinated
unmyelinated

16

what are 3 outcomes of the preganglion of sympathetic chain

-end in ganglia
-travel up and down the chain
-pass through the chain without synapsing

17

how can nerve fibers leave the sympathetic chain? (3)

-spinal nerves
-sympathetic nerves
-splanchnic nerves

18

spinal nerve route

making it through without synapse
exit ganglion by way of gray ramus and return to spinal nerve and travel the rest of the way to the target organ

19

splanchic nerve route

T5 to T12 pass through the ganglia without synapsing

20

What are the 3 major collateral ganglia in the abdominal aortic plexus?

-celiac
-superior mesenteric
-inferior mesenteric

21

adrenal glands

on top of the kidneys

22

parasympathetic division is called the _____

craniosacral division (brain to sacral region)

23

parasympathetic division has ____ preganglionic fibers which are found in the ___ ____and ____ postganglionic fibers

long; cranial nerves (3,7,9,10); short

24

___ ____ is less in the parasympathetic division than in the sympathetic division

neural divergence (wide spread effects)

25

enteric nervous system (3)

GUT
-nervous system of the digestive tract
-does not arise from the brainstem or spinal cord (no components in CNS)
-has own reflex arcs

26

megacolon

massive dilation of bowel accompanied by abdominal distension & chronic constipation (WE NEED FIBER)

27

hirschsprung disesase

hereditary defect causing absence of the enteric system that will not allow passage of feces

28

All autonomic fibers secrete either ____ or ____

ACh or NE

29

____ is secreted by all pregang neurons in both divisions and all postgang ____ divisions

ACh; parasympathetic

30

What are 2 types of cholinergic receptors?

muscarinic receptors (all cardiac muscles, smooth muscles,and gland cells)
nicotonic receptors (all post gang neurons of ANS)