Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (72)
Who concluded that animal tissues are made from cells?
Who established that cells arise only from other cells?
Modern Cell Theory (5)
-organisms composed of cells
-cell is the simplest structural & functional unit of life
-cells come from preexisting cells
-organisms structure & function are due to activities of cells
-cells exhibit biochemical similarities
cell growth increases _____more than ____
volume; surface area
plasma membrane (3)
-surrounds the cell
-made of proteins & lipids
-controls passage of material in & out of the cell
purpose of cholesterol in the membrane?
stiffens the membrane & holds phospholipids
purpose of glycolipids in the membrane?
contributes to glyocalyx (carbs coating on the cell surface)
transmembrane proteins (3)
-pass through membrane
-have hydrophobic & hydrophilic regions
-most are glycoproteins
peripheral proteins (2)
-adhere to one face of the membrane
-tethered to cytoskeleton
Functions of membrane proteins (7)
-cell identity marker
-cell adhesion molecules
Second messenger system (2 steps)
1. chemical binds to surface receptor
2. Triggers changes within the cell that produce a second messenger in the cytoplasm
adds phosphate groups to enzymes which can either activate or inactivate an enzyme
intracellular peripheral protein
cAMP vs ATP
cAMP: 1 phosphate group
ATP: 3 phosphate groups
What do transmembrane proteins with pores allow to pass though?
water and dissolved ions
what are the 3 types of gated channels?
pumps consume _____ in the process
what contributes to the glycocalyx that acts like an identification marker?
are they unique in everyone?
yes; except twins
-cell adhesion molecules
-adhere cells to other cells and extracelluar material
What does a cell need to grow & survive?
it needs to be mechanically linked to the extracellular material
-extensions of membrane
-serves to increase cells surface area
-specialized in absorption
what shorten microvilli?
actin filaments which are centered in each microvilli
hairlike processes that move mucus around
-core of cilia that is the basis of movement
-has 9+2 structure of microtubules
hereditary disease in which cells make chloride pumps, but fail to install them in the plasma membrane
saline layer for cilia
chloride pumps pump Cl- into ECF
-whiplike structure with axoneme identical to cilium
-longer than cilium
continually changing extensions of the cell that vary in shape & size
passive transport does/doesn't require ATP, while active transport does/doesn't require ATP
does not; does