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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (72)
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1

Who concluded that animal tissues are made from cells?

Schwann

2

Who established that cells arise only from other cells?

Pasteur

3

Modern Cell Theory (5)

-organisms composed of cells
-cell is the simplest structural & functional unit of life
-cells come from preexisting cells
-organisms structure & function are due to activities of cells
-cells exhibit biochemical similarities

4

cell growth increases _____more than ____

volume; surface area

5

plasma membrane (3)

-surrounds the cell
-made of proteins & lipids
-controls passage of material in & out of the cell

6

purpose of cholesterol in the membrane?

stiffens the membrane & holds phospholipids

7

purpose of glycolipids in the membrane?

contributes to glyocalyx (carbs coating on the cell surface)

8

transmembrane proteins (3)

-pass through membrane
-have hydrophobic & hydrophilic regions
-most are glycoproteins

9

peripheral proteins (2)

-adhere to one face of the membrane
-tethered to cytoskeleton

10

Functions of membrane proteins (7)

-receptors
-carriers
-second-messenger
-enzymes
-ion channels
-cell identity marker
-cell adhesion molecules

11

Second messenger system (2 steps)

1. chemical binds to surface receptor
2. Triggers changes within the cell that produce a second messenger in the cytoplasm

12

kinase

adds phosphate groups to enzymes which can either activate or inactivate an enzyme

13

G protein

intracellular peripheral protein

14

cAMP vs ATP

cAMP: 1 phosphate group
ATP: 3 phosphate groups

15

What do transmembrane proteins with pores allow to pass though?

water and dissolved ions

16

what are the 3 types of gated channels?

-ligand
-voltage
-mechanically

17

pumps consume _____ in the process

ATP

18

what contributes to the glycocalyx that acts like an identification marker?
are they unique in everyone?

glycoproteins
yes; except twins

19

CAMs

-cell adhesion molecules
-adhere cells to other cells and extracelluar material

20

What does a cell need to grow & survive?

it needs to be mechanically linked to the extracellular material

21

microvilli (3)

-extensions of membrane
-serves to increase cells surface area
-specialized in absorption

22

what shorten microvilli?

actin filaments which are centered in each microvilli

23

cilia

hairlike processes that move mucus around

24

axoneme (2)

-core of cilia that is the basis of movement
-has 9+2 structure of microtubules

25

cystic fibrosis

hereditary disease in which cells make chloride pumps, but fail to install them in the plasma membrane

26

saline layer for cilia

chloride pumps pump Cl- into ECF

27

flagella (2)

-whiplike structure with axoneme identical to cilium
-longer than cilium

28

pseudopods

continually changing extensions of the cell that vary in shape & size

29

passive transport does/doesn't require ATP, while active transport does/doesn't require ATP

does not; does

30

examples of passive transport (3)

filtration
diffusion
osmosis