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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (100)
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1

element

simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties

2

atomic number

number of protons in its nucleus

3

How many elements have biological roles?

24 elements

4

minerals (2)

-inorganic elements extracted from soil by plants & passed up the food chain to humans
-constitute 4% of body weight

5

What are electrolytes (mineral salts) needed for?

nerve & muscle function

6

Electrons determine the ______ properties of atoms

chemical

7

isotopes

elements that differ from one another due to the number of neutrons

8

atomic weight (2)

-relative atomic mass
-accounts for the fact that an element is a mixture of it s isotopes

9

radioisotopes

unstable isotopes that give off radiation

10

radioactivity

radioisotopes decay to stabilize isotopes by releasing radiation

11

Who was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize?

Madame Curie

12

What happens when an atom is converted into an ion?

high energy radiation ejects electrons from atoms

13

ions

charged particles with unequal number of protons & electrons

14

ionization

transfer of electrons from one atom to another

15

anion

atom that gains electrons (-charge)

16

cation

atom that loses and electron (+ charge)

17

electrolytes

-salts that ionize in water & form solutions
-can conduct an electric current

18

What is one of the most important considerations in patient care?

electrolytes

19

free radicals (2)

-chemical particles with an odd number of electrons
-produced by normal metabolic reactions

20

What do free radicals cause?

tissue damage

21

antioxidants

neutralize free radicals

22

molecules

chemical particles composed of 2 or more atoms united by a chemical bond

23

compound

made up of molecules with 2 or more different elements

24

isomers

molecules with identical molecular formulas, but different arrangements

25

What the types of chemical bonds?

-ionic
-covalent
-hydrogen
-van der waals forces

26

single vs double covalent bonds

single:one pair of electrons shared
double:two pairs of electrons are shared

27

nonpolar covalent bonds

electrons shared equally

28

polar covalent bonds

electrons shared unequally

29

hydrogen bonds

a weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slight negative atom

30

Are water molecules weak/strongly attracted to one another?

weakly