Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (100)
simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
number of protons in its nucleus
How many elements have biological roles?
-inorganic elements extracted from soil by plants & passed up the food chain to humans
-constitute 4% of body weight
What are electrolytes (mineral salts) needed for?
nerve & muscle function
Electrons determine the ______ properties of atoms
elements that differ from one another due to the number of neutrons
atomic weight (2)
-relative atomic mass
-accounts for the fact that an element is a mixture of it s isotopes
unstable isotopes that give off radiation
radioisotopes decay to stabilize isotopes by releasing radiation
Who was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize?
What happens when an atom is converted into an ion?
high energy radiation ejects electrons from atoms
charged particles with unequal number of protons & electrons
transfer of electrons from one atom to another
atom that gains electrons (-charge)
atom that loses and electron (+ charge)
-salts that ionize in water & form solutions
-can conduct an electric current
What is one of the most important considerations in patient care?
free radicals (2)
-chemical particles with an odd number of electrons
-produced by normal metabolic reactions
What do free radicals cause?
neutralize free radicals
chemical particles composed of 2 or more atoms united by a chemical bond
made up of molecules with 2 or more different elements
molecules with identical molecular formulas, but different arrangements
What the types of chemical bonds?
-van der waals forces
single vs double covalent bonds
single:one pair of electrons shared
double:two pairs of electrons are shared
nonpolar covalent bonds
electrons shared equally
polar covalent bonds
electrons shared unequally
a weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slight negative atom