Chapter 13: Spinal Cord, Nerves, & Somatic Reflexes Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 > Chapter 13: Spinal Cord, Nerves, & Somatic Reflexes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13: Spinal Cord, Nerves, & Somatic Reflexes Deck (68)
Loading flashcards...
1

conduction

nerve fibers that conduct info up and down the spinal cord (CNS)

2

neural integration

input from multiple sources, integrated & executed output

3

locomotion

repetitive, coordinated contractions of several muscle groups

4

reflexes

STAY AT THE SPINAL CORD LEVEL
involuntary stereotyped responses

5

spinal cord

cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem at the foramen magnum of the skull

6

spinal cord passes through_____ and gives rise to ___ pairs of spinal nerves.

vertebral canal; 31

7

Where do the 31 spinal nerves pass?

1st pair: between the skull & C1
rest through intervertebral foramina

8

What 2 parts of the spinal cord are thicker than elsewhere?

-cervical enlargement (upper limbs)
-lumber enlargement (lower limbs)

9

medullary cone

cord tapers to a point inferior to lumbar enlargement

10

cauda equina

bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5

11

meninges

three fibrous connective tissue membranes that enclose the brain & spinal cord

12

What are the 3 meninges (superficial to deep)?

-dura mater, arachnoid mater, & pia mater

13

What is special about the pia mater?

it is continuous with the brain & spinal cord

14

What space surrounds the meninges?

epidural space

15

spina bifida? How is it prevented?

-congenital defect in which one or more vertebrae fail to form a complete vertebral arch for enclosure of the spinal cord
-prevented via folic acid(B vitamin)

16

The ____ is shaped like a butterfly and is surround by the ___ in 3 columns.

gray matter; white matter

17

gray matter (2)

-little myelin
-site of info processing, synaptic integration

18

white matter (2)

-abundantly myelinated
-carry signals from one part of the CNS to another

19

columns of funiculi

3 pairs of these white matter bundles (posterior, later, ventral columns)

20

ascending tracts

carry sensory info up the spinal cord (afferent)
BODY->SPINAL CORD->BRAIN

21

descending tracts

carry motor info down the spinal cord (efferent)

22

decussation

the fibers pass up or down the brainstem & spinal cord they CROSS OVER from left to right (CROSS OVER EVENT)

23

contralateral

when the origin & destination of a tract are on opposite sides of the body

24

ipsilateral

when the origin & destination of a tract are on the same side of the body

25

What are the 3 sensory neurons of the ascending tract?

first order, second order, third order neurons

26

first order neuron (ASCENDING)

detect the stimulus & transmit signal to spinal cord/brain
presynaptic

27

second order neuron (ASCENDING)

continues to the thalamus at the upper end of brainstem
-interneurons

28

third order neuron (ASCENDING)

carries the signal the rest of the way to the cerebral cortex
-interneurons

29

ascending tracts (5)

-gracile fasciculus
-cuneate fasciculus
-spinothalamic tract
-spinoreticular tract
-spinocerebellar tract

30

gracile fasciculus
Location?
Decussate?
Function?

posterior
medulla oblongata
sensations of the limbs and trunk (lower level)