Chapter 11: Muscular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Muscular System Deck (123)
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1

3 types of muscular tissue

-skeletal
-cardiac
-smooth

2

Characteristics of Muscles (5)

-responsiveness
-conductivity
-contractility
-extensibility
-elasticity

(elaine received constant contractions extensively)

3

responsiveness to what? (3)

excitable
-to chemical signals, stretch, & electrical charges

4

conductivity

electrical change triggers a wave of excitation

5

contractility

shortens when stimulated

6

extensibility

capable of being stretched

7

elasticity

returns to original length after being stretched

8

skeletal muscle

striated VOLUNTARY muscle attached to one or more bones

9

Muscle cell =______

muscle fiber

10

striations

alternating light and dark transverse bands

11

What do tendons attach specifically?

muscle to bone matrix

12

endomysium

connective tissue around muscle cells

13

perimysium

connective tissue around muscle fascicles

14

epimysium

connective tissue surrounding entire muscle

15

what is the purpose of collagen? (3)

returns muscle to resting length
protects muscles from excessive stretching
contributes to power output & muscle efficiency

16

sarcolemma

plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

17

sarcoplasma

cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

18

myofibrils

long protein bundles that occupy the main portion of the sarcoplasma

19

what are the components of myofibrils?what do they store?

glycogen (provide energy for heightened exercise) & myoglobin (stores oxygen)

20

where are mitochondria packed in muscle fibers?

in spaces between myofibrils

21

myoblast

stem cells that fuse to form each muscle fiber

22

sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

smooth ER that forms a network around each myofibril

23

what is the sarcoplasmic reticulum a reservoir for?

calcium

24

what activates the muscle contraction process?

calcium

25

terminal cisternae

dilated end sacs of SR which cross the muscle fiber from one side to the other

26

T tubules

tubular infoldings of the sarcolemma that penetrate through the cell & emerge on the other side

27

triad

a T tubule & two terminal cisterns

28

thick filaments

made of several hundred myosin (golf club)

29

thin filaments

fibrous actin of 2 intertwined stands

30

What portion of the actin subunit can bind the head of the myosin molecule?

gobular (G) actin