Chapter 1 and 2 - Foundations of Physiology & Functional Organization of the Cell (2019) - Evals #1 by Keim Flashcards Preview

PHYSIOLOGY - 1st Year 1st Sem Comprehensive Exam > Chapter 1 and 2 - Foundations of Physiology & Functional Organization of the Cell (2019) - Evals #1 by Keim > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 and 2 - Foundations of Physiology & Functional Organization of the Cell (2019) - Evals #1 by Keim Deck (53)
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1

Homeostatic mechanisms are responsible for maintaining the constancy of the milieu interior. Homeostasis is currently thought of as?

The control of vital parameters

Note: Homeostasis is the control of a vital parameter. (Boron, page 4)

2

One of the most common themes in physiology is the negative-feedback mechanisms which is responsible for homeostasis. Negative-feedback requires at least 4 key elements below, excluding?

A single output signal most often does not operate in isolation but rather as part of a larger network of set points.

3

Homeostasis is currently to be argued to be not in equilibrium because

All of the above

Note: Whether at the level of the milieu intérieur or the cytoplasm of a single cell, homeostasis occurs at a price: energy. (Boron, page 4)

4

The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary, which controls the adrenal cortex, which releases cortisol, which helps control blood glucose levels. This exhibits what kind of property?

Hierarchy

Note: Finally, the physiologist must also establish hierarchy among various feedback loops. For example, the hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary, which controls the adrenal cortex, which releases cortisol, which helps control blood glucose levels. (Boron, page 4)

5

The more vital a parameter is, the more systems that the body mobilizes to regulate it. If one system should fail, others are there to help maintain homeostasis. This exhibits what kind of property?

Redundancy

Note: Another theme of homeostasis is redundancy. The more vital a parameter is, the more systems the body mobilizes to regulate it. If one system should fail, others are there to help maintain homeostasis. It is probably for this reason that genetic knockouts sometimes fail to have their expected deleterious effects. (Boron, page 4)

6

During exercise, the system that controls body core temperature sheds heat by elaborating sweat for evaporation. However, the production of sweat ultimately reduces blood volume the system that controls blood volume will instruct the system that controls body core temperature to reduce the production of sweat. This exhibits what kind of property?

Priority

7

This property depends on the body’s ability to alter its response. Indeed, flexible feedback loops are at the root of many forms of physiological adaptation. For instance, at sea level, experimentally lowering the level of oxygen (the sensory stimulus) in the inspired air causes an increase in breathing (the response).

Adaptability

8

Determine the relative weights of feedback loops with one another
. This exhibits what kind of property?

Competition

9

Which of the following best describes the function of rough ER in eukaryotic cells?

Protein synthesis

10

It allows proteins to be synthesized and secreted continuously?

Constitutive pathway

11

Sorting that separates apically from basolaterally directled proteins occurs in?

Trans-Golgi Network

12

Protein channel that connects two cells with an unselective pore?

Gap junctions

13

Protection function of protein as:

Recognition particle

14

Membrane Fluidity: Cholesterol.

High temperature = Decreases fluidity

15

Sense chemical signals from external environment?

Cell membrane proteins as RECEPTORS

16

Membrane-bound enzymes are especially prevalent in the cells of the intestine, which participate in the final stages of nutrient digestion and absorption?

Cell membrane proteins as enzymes

17

Type of protein responsible for tissue defense?

Recognition protein

18

Functions of peripheral proteins?

A. Can form a submembranous cytoskeleton
B. Can participate in intracellular signaling
C. Adhesion molecules
D. All of the above

D. all of the above

19

Describes the endoplasmic reticulum, except?

Has Na-K pump

20

A 44-year old female was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. Disruption in the function of which of the following type of membrane proteins are most likely involved?

Adhesion proteins

21

Which of the following proteins are not embedded but are tightly attached to either cytoplasmic or extracellular surface of the plasma membrane?

Peripheral proteins

22

The physical properties of the bilipid layer are dependent on its chemical makeup. The nature of
the head groups of the lipid molecules would determine?

The density of the membrane

23

Communication function of the cell membrane is mainly due to?

Proteins

24

True or False:

The phospholipid bilayer is the fluid structure where phospholipid molecules can freely diffuse
within the entire leaflet which it resides.

True

25

Provides a transport pathway between the nucleus and cytoplasm?

Nuclear pore

26

Programmed cell death signal sent by?

Mitochondria

27

Keratin is the primary constituents of nails, hairs, and the outer layers of skin. Which filaments?

Intermediate filaments

28

True of tight junctions?

Impede the flow of molecules between cells

29

Steps in sorting to lysosomal enzymes? (Sequence)

3-1-4-2

1 Receptor-dependent transport of vesicle from Golgi to prelysosomal endosome occurs.

2 Dissociation of M6P

3 M6P binds to M6P receptor in the Golgi and enters a budding vesicle.

4 H pump acidifies the endosome

30

Recognition marker required to target newly synthesized hydrolytic enzymes to lysosomes?

Mannose - 6 phosphate