Flashcards in Chapters 14 & 16: ANS And Circuits Of The CNS Deck (45)
Which brings information from the somatic sensory receptors of the skin and muscles?
In the local circuit of the neocortex, at which layer does neurons make synapses back into the thalamus?
According to ___________, reflexes are the building blocks of complex motor neurons or movements.
Sir Charles Sherrington
Arrange in chronological order the components of the reflex arch.
1. Arrival of stimulus
2. activation of receptor
3. Activation of sensory neuron
4. Information processing in the CNS
5. Activation of motor neuron
6. Activation of response by effector
Which is an example of inverse myotatic reflex?
Golgi tendon organ reflex
When a nocious stimuli activates the nociceptor afferent, information are being convayed by a group of A-delta axons that will generate what?
Myotatic (Knee-jerk) reflex is via group Ia axons
Golgi tendon reflex is via group Ib
A reflexive contraction of your quadriceps femoris muscle is the result after it is briefly stretched when eliciting what reflex arch?
Knee-jerk (myotatic) reflex arch
The patellar tendon reflex is a what type of reflex?
The following statements are true of the golgi tendon organ reflex except:
The reflex inhibits the spinal cord motor neuron to the flexor muscle.
Note: the reflex stimulates flexor muscle and inhibits extensor muscles
Which statement is true of the central pattern generators (CPG)?
A. Can function even without sensory feedback
B. Pacemaker cells contribute to CPG
C.Synaptic interconnections produce CPG
D. All of the above
According to the half center model for alternating rhythm generation in flexor and extensor motor neurons, when one motor neuron is active, the opposite is also stimulated.
Note: In the half-center model, when one is activated, the other half is inhibited (such as in flexor and extensor muscles)
T/F: In the condition called phantom limb, the area of the cortex originally receiving the stimulus will stop receiving signals after activation, hence, sensation is lost.
False. One can still “feel” the limb that was lost.
Looking at a cortical homunculus of the brain, much of the motor cortex is dedicated to the muscles of:
Fingers (because we can do a lot with our hands)
The motor portion of the cortical homunculus is located at
Note: Somatosensory portion is at the postcentral gyrus
Which is true regarding the detection of the high-frequency sound?
CNS detects interaural intensity difference.
Extra: Low-frequency sound detects interaural delay (0.6 milliseconds)
T/F: Neurons from the median superior olivary (MSO) nucleus and higher CNS centers receive abundant input from both ears.
The neurons in the central nervous system that detects simultaneous arrival of action potential from both the left and right ear is called a:
Coincidence detector (of the medial superior olivary (MSO) nucleus)
Which of the following is considered a main site for integration for autonomic function?
Which of the following plexus of the ENS is responsible for control of motility in GIT?
Auerbach’s or Myenteric Plexus
Extra: Submucosal or Meissner’s plexus control ion and fluid transport
Which of the following mechanisms is an important component for homeostasis under stressful condition to avoid large changes in various physiological parameters?
Note: Feed-forward is due to an anticipation of a future activity. Example: A 100-m dash athlete will have an increase in heart rate before a race.
Which of the following situation does the cortical control overwhelm the ANS control of the viscera?
Medical student experiencing nervousness with possibility of developing diarrhea just before the exams
The medical student having nasal congestion is given decongestant to relieve this symptom which drug will react on which of the following receptor?
Note: Alpha-1 is a norepi receptor (sympa) > vasoconstriction >decrease blood flow > less inflammatory mediators > relieve nasal congestion
Which of the following is released by the endothelial cell after the stimulation of the muscarinic receptor agonist?
Notes: Muscarinic receptor is stimulated by parasympa nerotransmitters > more nitric oxide > vasodilation
The following statements are TRUE on the anatomical differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic division:
A. Sympathetic postganglionic is shorter than the parasympathetic postganglionic
B. Location of the cell bodies of the sympathetic division is close to the target organ but the parasympathetic is close to the spinal cord.
Notes: Sympa post is longer while sympa cell bodies are close to the spinal cord (as paravertebral ganglia)
Which of the following receptor will respond to acetylcholine in the skin and will cause increased sweating?
There are non-classical neurotransmitters identified on the Autonomic Nervous system, the following statements are true of ATP EXCEPT:
It is contained inside the synaptic vesicles and when released by electrical stimulation it induces vascular dilation
(ATP is for VASOCONSTRICTION)
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons of your cell bodies are found in which of the following:
Prevertebral and paravertebral ganglion
The primary neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, has greater affinity to which of the following receptor?
Alpha adrenergic receptor
The M current which is inhibited by the muscarinic neurotransmission in autonomic ganglia refers which of the following current?
K+ (potassium) current