Chapter 11-12-13 Neuronal microenvironment, Physiology of Neurons and Synaptic transmission (2019) - Evals #6 by Keim Flashcards Preview

PHYSIOLOGY - 1st Year 1st Sem Comprehensive Exam > Chapter 11-12-13 Neuronal microenvironment, Physiology of Neurons and Synaptic transmission (2019) - Evals #6 by Keim > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 11-12-13 Neuronal microenvironment, Physiology of Neurons and Synaptic transmission (2019) - Evals #6 by Keim Deck (61)
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1

EPSP arriving rapidly arriving in succession while first EPSP has not yet been completed. A subsequent EPSP tends to add its amplitude to the preceding EPSP

Temporal summation

2

Neurons resting membrane potential

-70 mV

3

Most often neuron's threshold potential

-55 mV

4

Inhibitory neurotransmitters

GABA
Glycine

5

Excitatory neurotransmitters

Aspartate

6

Receptor that has a direct mechanical response to a neurotransmitter binding to it is:

Ionotropic

7

Higher permeability to Ca ions

NMDA

8

Voltage dependent in addition to being ligand-gated

NMDA

9

What mediates the large majority of synaptic inhibition in the CNS?

GABA

10

The larger diameter of axon, the faster its conduction velocity.

True

11

Synaptic transmission at chemical synapses occurs in seven steps:

1st – Neurotransmitter molecules are packaged into vesicles and vesicles are concentrated in the presynaptic terminal
2nd – the presynaptic membrane depolarizes, usually as the result of action potential
3rd – depolarization causes voltage-gated Ca channels to open and allow Ca ions to enter the cell
4th – the resulting increase in intracellular Ca triggers fusion of vesicles with the presynaptic membrance
5th – the transmitter is released into the extracellulr space in quantile amounts and diffuses passively across the synaptic cleft and some bind to the receptors in the post synaptic membrane

12

Serotonin

Raphe nuclei

13

Dopamine

Substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area

14

Norepinephrine

Locus coeruleus

15

Acetylcholine

Septal nuclei and nucleus basali

16

Organization of nervous system, portion where axons can regenerate

PNS

17

Organization of nervous system, portion where axons cannot regenerate

CNS

18

Cranial nerve not included in the PNS

CN II

19

Part of nervous system that has a functionally distinct system that regulates and controls visceral functions

ANS

20

True of neuronal axon:

A. Initial segment is unmyelinated and is the spike origination zone
B. Axon is thin with 1000x as much cytoplasm
C. Action potential travels by continuous propagation without myelin

Paki screenshot then ask Lloyd hahaha.

21

CNS glial cells

Oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes
Glial Cells

22

Saltatory axoplasmic transport movement along microtubules by motor molecules through dynein

Fast retrograde

23

True of glial cels

They have much more numerous diversity

24

Most neurons of the brains are:

Multipolar

25

Predominant electrolyte permeable to astrocyte is:

Potassium

26

True

A. Basic physiological properties of all astrocytes are similar
B. Neurotransmitter receptor among astrocytes are different in the brain region
C. Astrocytes store all glycogen and provide neuronal lactate demand

No answer. Please edit and answer if you know.

27

As glucose enters the brain from the blood, it initially encounters the:

Astrocytic endfoot

28

Development of fully excitatory synapses in the brain rquires the presence of:

Astrocytes

29

60 yr old farmer fell down from an 8ft coconut tree, head down resulting to fatal brain injury. The following physiologic changes are sustained:

A. High concentration of neurotransmitter glutamate is released to the brain ECF
B. There is activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors
C. Glial cells swell due to neuronal entry of sodium, water and chloride ions

No answer. Please edit and answer if you know.

30

Cerebral edema

A. Brain fluid that accumulates comes from vascular compartment
B. Small increases in intracranial volume have little effect on pressure
C. Additional increases in volume involving potentially life threatening increases in pressure

No answer. Please edit and answer if you know.