CH9 - Respiratory Tract Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH9 - Respiratory Tract Pathology Deck (289)
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1

What is rhinitis?

Inflammation of the nasal mucosa;

2

What is the most common cause of rhinitis?

adenovirus

3

What does rhinitis present with?

sneezing, congestion, and runny nose (common cold)

4

What is allergic rhinitis?

a subtype of rhinitis due to a type I hypersensitivity reaction (e.g. to pollen)

5

What is allergic rhinitis characterized by?

an inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophils

6

What is allergic rhinitis characterized by?

associated with asthma and eczema

7

What is a nasal polyp?

Protrusion of edematous, inflamed nasal mucosa

8

What is a nasal polyp usually secondary to?

repealed bouts of rhinitis; also occurs in cystic fibrosis and aspirin - intolerant asthma

9

What is aspirin-intolerant asthma characterized by?

the triad of asthma, aspirin induced bronchospasms, and nasal polyps;

10

What is the incidence of asprin-intolerant asthma in asthmatic adults?

seen in 10% of asthmatic adults

11

What is angiofibroma?

Benign tumor of nasal mucosa composed of large blood vessels and fibrous tissue

12

In whom is angiofibroma classically seen?

in adolescent males

13

What does angiofibroma present with?

profuse epistaxis

14

What is nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

Malignant tumor of nasopharyngeal epithelium

15

What is nasopharyngeal carcinoma associated with?

EBV

16

Who is nasopharyngeal carcinoma classically seen in?

African children and Chinese adults

17

What happens in a biopsy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

usually reveals pleomorphic keratin-positive epithelial cells (poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma) in a background of lymphocytes

18

How does nasopharyngeal carcinoma often present?

with involvement of cervical lymph nodes

19

What is acute epiglottitis?

Inflammation of the epiglottis

20

What is the most common cause of acute epiglottitis?

H. influenzae type b especially in nonimmunized children

21

What does acute epiglottitis present with?

high fever, sore throat, drooling with dysphagia, muffled voice, and inspiratory stridor; risk of airway obstruction

22

What is laryngotracheobronchitis?

(croup) Inflammation of the upper airway

23

What is the most common cause of laryngotracheobronchitis?

parainfluenza virus

24

What does laryngotracheobronchitis present with?

a hoarse, (barking) cough and inspiratory stridor

25

What is a vocal cord nodule?

(singer?s nodule) nodule that arises on the true vocal cord

26

What is a vocal cord nodule due to?

excessive use of vocal cords, usually bilateral

27

What is a vocal cord nodule composed of?

degenerative (myxoid) connective tissue

28

How does a vocal cord nodule present?

with hoarseness; resolves with resting of voice

29

What is laryngeal papilloma?

Benign papillary tumor of the vocal cord

30

What is laryngeal papilloma due to?

HPV 6 and 11