CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia Deck (169)
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1

Neoplasia is

new tissue growth that is unregulated, irreversible, and monoclonal

2

What features distinguish neoplasia from hyperplasia and repair?

unregulated, irreversible, and monoclonal

3

Monoclonal means

that the neoplastic cells are derived from a single mother cell

4

Clonality can be determined by?

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme isoforms.

5

Multiple isoforms

G6PDA, G6PDb, and G6PDc exist; only one isoform is inherited from each parent.

6

lyonization

In females, one isoform is randomly inactivated in each cell by lyonization

7

G6PD is present on what chromosome

X

8

Normal ratio of active isoforms in cells of any tissue is

1:1 (e.g 50% of cells have G6PDa , and 50% ofcells have G6PDG)

9

In hyperplasia what happens to the ratio?

1:1 ratio is maintained in hyperplasia, which is polyclonal (cells are derived from multiple cells).

10

In neoplasia what can be said about the isoform?

Only one isoform is present in neoplasia, which is monoclonal

11

Clonality can also be determined by

androgen receptor isoforms, which are also present on the X chromosome.

12

Clonality of B lymphocytes is determined by

immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain phenotype.

13

Ig is comprised of

heavy and light chains.

14

Each B cell expresses

light chain that is either kappa or lambda.

15

Normal kappa to lambda light chain ratio is

3:01

16

Kappa to lambda ratio in hyperplasia

This ratio is maintained in hyperplasia, which is polyclonal

17

kappa to lambda ratio in lymphoma?

Ratio increases to > 6:1 or is inverted (kappa to lambda ratio = 1:3) in lymphoma, which is monoclonal

18

Neoplastic tumors are

benign or malignant

19

Benign tumors

remain localized and do not metastasize

20

Malignant tumors

(cancer) invade locally and have the potential to metastasize.

21

Tumor nomenclature is based on

lineage of differentiation (type of tissue produced) and whether the tumor is benign or malignant

22

What benign growths result from the epithelium?

Adenoma, papilloma

23

What malignant growths result from the epithelium?

Adenocarcinoma and papillary carcinoma

24

What benign growths result from the mesenchyme?

Lipoma

25

What malignant growths result from the mesenchyme?

Liposarcoma

26

What benign growths result from the lymphocyte?

Does not exist

27

What malignant growths result from the lymphocyte?

Lymphoma/Leukemia

28

What benign growths result from the melanocyte?

Nevus (mole)

29

What malignant growths result from the melanocyte?

Melanoma

30

What is the 2nd leading cause of death in both adults and children?

cancer