Flashcards in CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia Deck (169)
new tissue growth that is unregulated, irreversible, and monoclonal
What features distinguish neoplasia from hyperplasia and repair?
unregulated, irreversible, and monoclonal
that the neoplastic cells are derived from a single mother cell
Clonality can be determined by?
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme isoforms.
G6PDA, G6PDb, and G6PDc exist; only one isoform is inherited from each parent.
In females, one isoform is randomly inactivated in each cell by lyonization
G6PD is present on what chromosome
Normal ratio of active isoforms in cells of any tissue is
1:1 (e.g 50% of cells have G6PDa , and 50% ofcells have G6PDG)
In hyperplasia what happens to the ratio?
1:1 ratio is maintained in hyperplasia, which is polyclonal (cells are derived from multiple cells).
In neoplasia what can be said about the isoform?
Only one isoform is present in neoplasia, which is monoclonal
Clonality can also be determined by
androgen receptor isoforms, which are also present on the X chromosome.
Clonality of B lymphocytes is determined by
immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain phenotype.
Ig is comprised of
heavy and light chains.
Each B cell expresses
light chain that is either kappa or lambda.
Normal kappa to lambda light chain ratio is
Kappa to lambda ratio in hyperplasia
This ratio is maintained in hyperplasia, which is polyclonal
kappa to lambda ratio in lymphoma?
Ratio increases to > 6:1 or is inverted (kappa to lambda ratio = 1:3) in lymphoma, which is monoclonal
Neoplastic tumors are
benign or malignant
remain localized and do not metastasize
(cancer) invade locally and have the potential to metastasize.
Tumor nomenclature is based on
lineage of differentiation (type of tissue produced) and whether the tumor is benign or malignant
What benign growths result from the epithelium?
What malignant growths result from the epithelium?
Adenocarcinoma and papillary carcinoma
What benign growths result from the mesenchyme?
What malignant growths result from the mesenchyme?
What benign growths result from the lymphocyte?
Does not exist
What malignant growths result from the lymphocyte?
What benign growths result from the melanocyte?
What malignant growths result from the melanocyte?