CH10 - Gastrointestinal Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH10 - Gastrointestinal Pathology Deck (345)
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1

What are some diseases that affect the oral cavity?

1) cleft up and palate 2) aphthous ulcer 3) Behcet syndrome 4) Oral herpes 5) squamous cell carcinoma

2

What is cleft up and palate?

Full-thickness defect of lip or palate

3

What is cleft up and palate due to?

failure of facial prominences to fuse

4

How is face formed?

During early pregnancy, facial prominences (one from superior, two from the sides, and two from inferior) grow and fuse together to form the face

5

Does the cleft lip and palate usually occur together or separate?

Usually together, isolated cleft lip or palate is less common.

6

What is aphthous ulcer?

Painful, superficial ulceration of the oral mucosa

7

When does aphthous ulcer arise?

in relation to stress and resolves spontaneously, but often recurs

8

What is aphthous ulcer characterized by?

a grayish base surrounded by erythema

9

What is behcet syndrome?

Recurrent aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis

10

What is behcet syndrome due to?

immune complex vasculitis involving small vessels

11

When might you see behcet syndrome?

after viral infection, but etiology is unknown

12

What is oral herpes?

Vesicles involving oral mucosa that rupture, resulting in shallow, painful, red ulcers

13

What is oral herpes usually due to?

HSV-1

14

For oral herpes when does the primary infection occur?

in childhood; lesions heal, but virus remains dormant in ganglia of the trigeminal nerve.

15

For oral herpes what might cause reactivation of the virus?

Stress and sunlight, leading to vesicles that often arise on the lips (cold sore)

16

What is squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity?

Malignant neoplasm of squamous cells lining the oral mucosa

17

For oral squamous cell carcinoma what are the major risk factors?

Tobacco and alcohol

18

What is the most common location for oral squamous cell carcinoma?

Floor of mouth

19

Regarding oral squamous cell carcinoma what are the precursor lesions

Oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia

20

What is leukoplakia?

It is a white plaque that cannot be scraped away; often represents squamous cell dysplasia

21

What is oral candidiasis?

it is a white deposit on the tongue, which is easily scraped away; usually seen in immunocompromised states

22

What is hairy leukoplakia?

it is a white, rough (hairy) patch that arises on the lateral tongue. It is usually seen in immunocompromised individuals (AIDS) and is due to EBV-induced squamous cell hyperplasia; not pre-malignant

23

What is erythroplakia?

(red plaque) represents vascularized leukoplakia and is highly suggestive of squamous cell dysplasia,

24

Would you biopsy erythroplakia and leukoplakia?

they are often biopsied to rule out carcinoma

25

What are salivary glands?

they are exocrine glands that secrete saliva.

26

What are salivary glands divided into?

major (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands and minor glands (hundreds of microscopic glands distributed throughout the oral mucosa)

27

What is the mumps?

Infection with mumps virus resulting in bilateral inflamed parotid glands

28

In mumps, what other infections in addition to the mumps virus may be present?

Orchitis, pancreatitis, and aseptic meningitis may also be present.

29

Why is serum amylase increased?

due to salivary gland or pancreatic involvement

30

What is there a risk of with orchitis?

carries risk of sterility, especially in teenagers.