Flashcards in CH10 - Gastrointestinal Pathology Deck (345)
What are some diseases that affect the oral cavity?
1) cleft up and palate 2) aphthous ulcer 3) Behcet syndrome 4) Oral herpes 5) squamous cell carcinoma
What is cleft up and palate?
Full-thickness defect of lip or palate
What is cleft up and palate due to?
failure of facial prominences to fuse
How is face formed?
During early pregnancy, facial prominences (one from superior, two from the sides, and two from inferior) grow and fuse together to form the face
Does the cleft lip and palate usually occur together or separate?
Usually together, isolated cleft lip or palate is less common.
What is aphthous ulcer?
Painful, superficial ulceration of the oral mucosa
When does aphthous ulcer arise?
in relation to stress and resolves spontaneously, but often recurs
What is aphthous ulcer characterized by?
a grayish base surrounded by erythema
What is behcet syndrome?
Recurrent aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis
What is behcet syndrome due to?
immune complex vasculitis involving small vessels
When might you see behcet syndrome?
after viral infection, but etiology is unknown
What is oral herpes?
Vesicles involving oral mucosa that rupture, resulting in shallow, painful, red ulcers
What is oral herpes usually due to?
For oral herpes when does the primary infection occur?
in childhood; lesions heal, but virus remains dormant in ganglia of the trigeminal nerve.
For oral herpes what might cause reactivation of the virus?
Stress and sunlight, leading to vesicles that often arise on the lips (cold sore)
What is squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity?
Malignant neoplasm of squamous cells lining the oral mucosa
For oral squamous cell carcinoma what are the major risk factors?
Tobacco and alcohol
What is the most common location for oral squamous cell carcinoma?
Floor of mouth
Regarding oral squamous cell carcinoma what are the precursor lesions
Oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia
What is leukoplakia?
It is a white plaque that cannot be scraped away; often represents squamous cell dysplasia
What is oral candidiasis?
it is a white deposit on the tongue, which is easily scraped away; usually seen in immunocompromised states
What is hairy leukoplakia?
it is a white, rough (hairy) patch that arises on the lateral tongue. It is usually seen in immunocompromised individuals (AIDS) and is due to EBV-induced squamous cell hyperplasia; not pre-malignant
What is erythroplakia?
(red plaque) represents vascularized leukoplakia and is highly suggestive of squamous cell dysplasia,
Would you biopsy erythroplakia and leukoplakia?
they are often biopsied to rule out carcinoma
What are salivary glands?
they are exocrine glands that secrete saliva.
What are salivary glands divided into?
major (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands and minor glands (hundreds of microscopic glands distributed throughout the oral mucosa)
What is the mumps?
Infection with mumps virus resulting in bilateral inflamed parotid glands
In mumps, what other infections in addition to the mumps virus may be present?
Orchitis, pancreatitis, and aseptic meningitis may also be present.
Why is serum amylase increased?
due to salivary gland or pancreatic involvement