CH6 - White Blood Cell Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH6 - White Blood Cell Disorders Deck (283)
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1

What does hematopoetic CD34+ stem cells produce?

Myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells

2

What does myeloid stem cells produce?

Erythroblast, Myeloblast, Monoblast, Megakaryoblast

3

What does erythroblast produce?

RBCs

4

What does myeloblast produce?

Neutrophils, basophils, Eosinophils

5

What does monoblast produce?

Monocytes

6

What does megakaryoblast produce?

megakaryocytes

7

What does lymphoid stem cells produce?

B lymphoblast and T Lymphoblast

8

What does B lymphoblast produce?

Naïve Bcells

9

What does Naïve B cells produce?

Plasma cells

10

What does T lymphoblast produce?

Naïve Tcells

11

What does Naïve T cells produce?

CD8+ and CD4+ T cells

12

How does hematopoiesis occur?

via a stepwise maturation of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells

13

What happens to hematopoetic stem cells?

Cells mature and are released from the bone marrow into the blood.

14

What is the normal white blood cell (WBC) count?

it is approximately 5-10 K/pL

15

What is a low WBC count? What is it called?

(< 5 K) is called leukopenia.

16

What is a high WBC count? What is it called?

(> 10 K) is called leukocytosis.

17

What is a low or high WBC count usually due to?

a decrease or increase in one particular cell lineage.

18

What is neutropenia?

refers to a decreased number of circulating neutrophils

19

What are some of the causes of neutropenia?

1) Drug toxicity 2) severe infection

20

How can drug toxicity lead to neutropenia?

e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents, cause damage to stem cells resulting in decreased production of WBCs, especially neutrophils.

21

How does severe infection lead to neutropenia?

e.g., gram-negative sepsis leads to increased movement of neutrophils into tissues resulting in decreased circulating neutrophils.

22

What is GM-CSF or G-CSF?

granulocyte monocyte stimulating factor or granulocyte stimulating factor, it can be used to boost the neutrophil count decreasing the risk of infection

23

What is lymphopenia?

it refers to a decreased number of circulating lymphocytes

24

What are the some of the causes of lymphopenia?

1) immunodeficiency 2) high cortisol state 3) autoimmune destruction 4) whole body radiation

25

What are some examples of immunodeficiency that lead to lymphopenia?

e.g., DiGeorge syndrome or HIV

26

How does a High Cortisol state lead to lymphopenia?

exogenous corticosteroids or Cushing syndrome, induces apoptosis of lymphocytes

27

What is an example of autoimmune destruction leading to lymphopenia?

e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus

28

How can whole body radiation lead to lymphopenia?

Lymphocytes are highly sensitive to radiation; lymphopenia is the earliest change to emerge after whole body radiation

29

What are the different types of leukocytosis?

1) neutrophilic leukocytosis 2) monocytosis 3) Eosinophilia 4) Basophilia 5) Lymphocytic leukocytosis

30

What does neutrophilic leukocytosis refer to?

increased circulating neutrophils