Flashcards in CH14 - Male Genital System Pathology Deck (136)
What is the hypospadias?
Opening of urethra on inferior surface of penis
What is hypospadias due to?
failure of the urethral folds to dose
What is epispadias?
opening of urethra on superior surface of penis
What is epispadias due to?
abnormal positioning of the genital tubercle
What is epispadias associated with?
What is condyloma acuminatum?
Benign warty growth on genital skin
What is condyloma acuminatum due to?
HPV type 6 or 11; characterized by koilocytic change
What is lymphogranuloma venereum?
Necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the inguinal lymphatics and lymph nodes
What is lymphogranuloma venereum caused by?
sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes L1-L3)
What eventually happens to lymphogranuloma venereum?
it heals with fibrosis; perianal involvement may result in rectal stricture
What is squamous cell carcinoma for the penis?
Malignant proliferation of squamous cells of penile skin
What are the risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis?
1) high risk HPV (2/3 of cases) 2) Lack of circumcision
Why is a lack of circumcision a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis?
foreskin acts as a nidus for inflammation and irritation if not properly maintained
In squamous cell carcinoma of the penis what are the precursor in situ lesions?
1) Bowen disease 2) Erythroplasia of Queyrat 3) Bowenoid papulosis (only CIS with no predisposition for invasion)
What is Bowen disease?
in situ carcinoma of the penile shaft or scrotum that presents as leukoplakia
What is erythroplasia of queyrat?
in situ carcinoma on the glans that presents as erythroplakia
What is bowenoid papulosis?
in situ carcinoma that presents as multiple reddish papules
In whom is bowenoid papulosis seen?
Seen in younger patients (40s) relative to Bowen disease and erythroplasia of Queyrat
How invasive is bowenoid papulosis?
Does not progress to invasive carcinoma
What is cryptorchidism?
Failure of testicle to descend into the scrotal sac
Where do the testicles normally develop?
in the abdomen and then descend into the scrotal sac as the fetus grows.
What is the most common congenital male reproductive abnormality and how often is it seen?
Cryptorchidism and is seen in 1% of male infants
What is orchiopexy?
Operation to bring undescended testicle into scrotum
What happens in most cases of cryptorchidism?
most cases resolve spontaneously; otherwise, orchiopexy is performed before 2 years of age.
What are the complications for cryptorchidism?
they include testicular atrophy with infertility and increased risk for seminoma.
What is orchitis?
Inflammation of the testicle
What are the causes for orchitis?
1) Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes D-K) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae 2) Escherichia coli and Pseadomonas 3) mumps virus 4) autoimmune orchitis
In whom is orchitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes D-K) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae seen in and what happens as a result?
young adults. Increased risk of sterility, but libido is not affected because Leydig cells are spared.
In whom is orchitis caused by Escherichia coli and Pseadomonas seen in and what happens as a result?
older adults and what results is that urinary tract infection pathogens spread into the reproductive tract.