CH13 - Female Genital System and Gestational Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH13 - Female Genital System and Gestational Pathology Deck (337)
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1

What is the vulva?

Anatomically includes the skin and mucosa of the female genitalia external to the hymen (labia majora, labia minora, mons pubis, and vestibule)

2

What is the vulva lined by?

squamous epithelium

3

What is a bartholin cyst?

Cystic dilation of the Bartholin gland

4

What are the bartholin glands?

One Bartholin gland is present on each side of the vaginal canal and produces mucus-like fluid that drains via ducts into the lower vestibule.

5

Bartholin cyst arises due to what?

inflammation and obstruction of gland

6

In whom does bartholin cyst usually occur?

in women of reproductive age

7

How does bartholin cyst present?

as a unilateral, painful cystic lesion at the lower vestibule adjacent to the vaginal canal

8

What is condyloma?

Warty neoplasm of vulvar skin, often large

9

What is condyloma most commonly due to?

HPV types 6 or 11 (condyloma acuminatum) secondary syphilis (condyloma latum) is a less common cause. Both are sexually transmitted.

10

Histologically, how are HPV-associated condylomas characterized?

by koilocytes

11

What is the relationship between condylomas and carcinoma?

They rarely progress to carcinoma (6 and 11 are low-risk HPV types)

12

How is lichen sclerosis characterized?

by thinning of the epidermis and fibrosis (sclerosis) of the dermis

13

How does lichen sclerosis present?

as a white patch (leukoplakia) with parchment-1ike vulvar skin

14

What is lichen sclerosis most commonly seen in?

postmenopausal women

15

What is a possible etiology for lichen sclerosis?

Possibly autoimmune etiology

16

Is lichen sclerosis associated with carcinoma?

Benign, but associated with a slightly increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma

17

What is lichen simplex chronicus?

Characterized by hyperplasia of the vulvar squamous epithelium

18

How does lichen simplex chronicus present?

as leukoplakia with thick, leathery vulvar skin

19

What is lichen simplex chronicus associated with?

chronic irritation and scratching

20

Is lichen simplex chronicus associated with carcinoma?

Benign; no increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma

21

What is vulvar carcinoma?

Carcinoma arising from squamous epithelium lining the vulva

22

What is the frequency of vulvar carcinoma?

Relatively rare, accounting for only a small percentage of female genital cancers

23

How does vulvar carcinoma present?

as leukoplakia

24

In vulvar carcinoma what may be required and why?

biopsy to distinguish carcinoma from other causes of leukoplakia

25

What is the etiology for vulvar carcinoma?

may be HPV related or non-HPV related.

26

What is HPV-related vulvar carcinoma due to?

high-risk HPV types 16 and 18.

27

What are the risk factors for HPV-related vulvar carcinoma related to?

HPV exposure and include multiple partners and early first age of intercourse; generally occurs in women of reproductive age

28

From where does HPV related vulvar carcinoma arise?

It arises from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), a dysplastic precursor lesion characterized by koilocytic change, disordered cellular maturation, nuclear atypia, and increased mitotic activity

29

When does non-HPV related vulvar carcinoma arise?

most often, from long-standing lichen sclerosis,

30

What happens in non-HPV related vulvar carcinoma?

Chronic inflammation and irritation eventually lead to carcinoma