Ch 1 - Intro to Sociology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 1 - Intro to Sociology Deck (30)
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1

sociology

the systematic study of human behaviour in social context

2

social structures

stable patterns of social relations

3

sociological imagination

the quality of mind that enables one to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures

4

microstructures

patterns of intimate social relations formed during face-to-face interaction (ex. families and friend cliques)

5

mesostructures

patterns of social relations in organizations that involve people who are often not intimately acquainted and who often do not interact face to face (ex. uni, govt bureaucracies)

6

macrostructures

overarching patterns of social relations that lie above and beyond mesostructures. (ex. patriarchy)

7

patriarchy

a system of power relations and customary practices that help to ensure male dominance in economic, political, and other spheres of life

8

global structures

the fourth level of society that surrounds and permeates us (ex. economic relations among countries, patterns of worldwide travel and communication)

9

Industrial Revolution

Beginning in Britain in the 1780s, a process of rapid economic transformation that involved the large scale application of science and technology to industrial processes, the creation factories, and the formation of a working class

10

Social solidarity

A property of social groups that increases with the degree to which a groups members share beliefs and values, and the frequency and intensity with which they interact

High social solidarity = secure relationships/sense of belonging w likeminded people
Low = lack thereof

11

Rate

The number of times an event happens in a given period per 100,000 members of the population

12

Egoistic suicide

The type of suicide that results from a lack of integration of the individual into society because of weak social ties to others

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Anomic suicide

Occurs when norms governing behaviour are vaguely defined - low solidarity settings

14

Altruistic suicide

Intentional suicide that occurs to help/save others - high solidarity setting

15

functionalist theory

How human behaviour is dictated by social structures based on shared values, and how that contributes to social stability

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Dysfunctions

Effects of social structures that create social instability

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Manifest functions

Visible and intended effects of social structures

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Latent function

Invisible and unintended effects of social structures

19

Social classes

Positions people occupy in a hierarchy that is shaped by the source/amount of their income/wealth

20

Class conflict

The struggle between classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classes

21

Conflict theory

Highlights the tensions underlying existing social structures and the capacity of those tensions to burst into the open and cause social change

22

Class consciousness

Awareness of being a member of a social class

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Cultural hegemony

Involves the control of a culture by dominant classes and other groups to the point where their values are universally accepted as common sense

24

poststructuralism

school of thought where the stability of social relations and culture is denied along with its capacity to shape how people think and act

25

protestant ethic

belief that religious doubts can be reduced if one works hard and is self disciplined; had unintended effects of increasing capitalist growth in the 16th and 17th century

26

symbolic interactionism

examination of how various aspects of social life convey meaning and thereby assist or impeded communication

27

gender

one's sense of being masculine or feminine as conventionally defined

28

feminism

school of thought claiming that female/male domination not determined by biology but by structures of power and social convention

29

reactivity

awareness of an observer present, meaning people have a tendency to conceal things or act differently

30

detached observation

a type of field research that involves classifying and counting the behaviour of interest according to a pre-determined scheme (observing without passing judgment or affecting those observed)