Ch 2 - Culture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 2 - Culture Deck (28)
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1

culture

practices, languages, symbols, beliefs, values, ideologies, and material objects that is socially constructed and transmitted by people to deal with real-life problems

2

society

a group of people who interact (usually within a defined territory geographically) and share a culture

3

abstraction

the human capacity to create general ideas or ways of thinking that are not linked to particular instances

4

symbols

things that carry particular meanings ex. language, math signs. Symbols allow us to classify experiences and generalize from it.

5

cooperation

the human capacity to createa complex social life by sharing resources and working together

6

norms

generally accepted ways of doing things

7

values

ideas about what is right and wrong, good and bad, beautiful and ugly

8

folkway

the least important type of norm-a norm that evokes the least severe punishment when violated

9

more

a core norm that most people believe is essential for the survivial of their group or their society (moderately severe punishment when violated; requires there to be both a social PREFERENCE and social REQUIREMENT)

10

taboo

the strongest type of norm. when someone violates a taboo, it causes revulsion in the community, and pushment is severe

11

production

the human capacity to make and use tools. It improves our ability to take what we want from nature.

12

material culture

the tools and techniques that enable people to accomplish tasks

13

high culture

culture consumed mainly by upper classes

14

popular culture (or mass culture)

culture consumed by all classes

15

dominant culture

helps rich and powerful categories of people exercise control over others

16

subordinate culture

contests dominant culture to varying degrees

17

language

a system of symbols strung together to communicate thought

18

sapir-whorf thesis

we experience certain things and form concepts about said things then develop language to express as such. language influences how we see the world

19

ethnocentrism

the tendency to judge other cultures exclusively by the standards of your own

20

multiculturalism

policy that reflects canada's ethnic and racial diversity in the past and enhances its ethnic and racial diversity today

21

cultural relativism

the belief that all cultures have equal value

22

rights revolution

the process by which socially excluded groups have struggled to win equal rights under the law and in practice

23

rites of passage

cultural ceremonies that mark the transition from one stage of life to another (ex. baptisms, confirmations, weddings) or from life to death (ex. funerals)

24

postmodernism

culture characterized by an eclectic mix of cultural elements from different times and places, the erosion of authority, and the decline of consensus around core values

25

rationalization

the application of the most efficient means to achieve given goals and the unintended, negative consequences of doing so

26

consumerisms

the tendency to define ourselves in terms of the goods and services we purchase

27

subculture

a set of distinctive values, norms, and practices within a larger culture

28

countercultures

subversive subcultures that oppose dominant values and seek to replace them