Ch. 6 - Social Stratification: Canadian and Global Perspectives Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6 - Social Stratification: Canadian and Global Perspectives Deck (34)
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1

social stratification

the way society is organized in layers or strata

2

human capital

investment in education and training. just as productivity increases by upgrading manufacturing plants and introducing new technology, productivity gains can also result from investment in the skills and abilities of people.

3

social capital

the networks or connections that individuals possess

4

cultural capital

the widely shared, high status cultural signals (attitudes, preferences, formal knowledge, behaviours, goals, and credentials) used for social and cultural inclusion and exclusion

5

poverty

lacks an agreen-on definition. analysts disagree whether poverty should be defined in absolute or relative terms and whether it should be based on income or consumption. Canada does not have an official poverty line.

6

feminization of poverty

theory that (1) women are more likely to be low-income earners than men are, and (2) the low-income gap between women and men is growing

7

class

according to marx, a grouping that is determined by a person's relationship to the means of production or the source of that person's income. In Weber's usage, class position is determined by a person's "market situation," including the possession of goods, opportunities for income, level of education, and level of technical skill

8

bourgeoisie

owners of the means of production, including factories, tools, and land, according to marx. they do not do any physical labour. income derives from profits.

9

proletariat

the term marx gave to the working class. members of the proletariat perform physical labour but do not own means of production. they are thus in a position to earnwages.

10

functional theory of stratification

argues that 1. some jobs are more important than others, 2. people must make sacrifices to train for important jobs, and 3. inequality is required to motivate people to undergo these sacrifices

11

status groups

groups that differ from one another in terms of the prestige or social honour they enjoy and in terms of their style of life.

12

parties

in Weber's usage, organizations that seek to impose their will on others

13

social mobility

movement up or down the stratification system

14

intragenerational mobility

social mobility that occurs within a single generation

15

intergenerational mobility

social mobility that occurs between generations

16

ascription-based stratification system

a system in which the allocation of rank depends on the features with which a person is born (Ascribed characteristics)

17

achievement-based stratification system

a system in which the allocation of rank depends on a person's accomplishments.

18

modernization theory

holds that global inequality results from various dysfunctional characteristics of poor socieities: lack of investment capital, Western-style busines techniques, stable Western-style governments, and a Western mentality

19

dependecy theory

holds that global inequality is the result of patterns of domination and submission between rich and poor countries. from this point of view, rich countries have impoverished poor countries in order to enrich themselves.

20

core countries

capitalist coutnries that are the world's major sources of capital and technology (The US, Japan, and Germany)

21

peripheral countries

the world's major sources of raw materials and cheap labour (The former colonies)

22

semiperipheral coutnries

former colonies that are making considerable headway in their attempt to become prosperous

23

social power

the tools used to influence others. weber defined this as "the ability to achieve one's goals,even against the resistancce of others."

24

gini coefficient

a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.

25

grade A tax system

those who make more are technically paying more taxes

26

after-tax income

the amount of money earned in a given period after paying income tax and receiving government benefits such as 1) employment insurance 2) child tax credits 3)GST credits 4) welfare payments

27

neoliberalism

economic paradigm/ideology that rose in the 1980s. "Don't want government to be too involved in the process of money making." — 1) self-regulating market (free market, laissez-faire) . 2) individual pursuit of success - meritocracy 3) privatization i.e. nursing homes are private

28

displacement

people who can't afford to own businesses

29

healthy immigrant effect

most people are healthy when they immigrate here but become unhealthy overtime

30

social darwinism

the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals.