Ch 5 - Deviance and Crime Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 5 - Deviance and Crime Deck (23)
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1

deviance

breaking a norm that evokes a negative reaction from others

2

crime

deviance that is against the law

3

law

a norm stipulated and enforced by gov't bodies

4

formal punishment

penalization by the judicial system for breaking a law

5

informal punishment

a mild sanction that is imposed during face-to-face interaction rather than by the judicial system

6

stigmatization

process of negatively evaluating people because of a marker that distinguishes them from others

7

victimless crimes

violations of the law in which no victim has stepped forward and been identified

8

self-report surveys

surveys in which respondents are asked to report their involvement in criminal activites, either as perpetrators or victims

9

victimization surveys

surveys in which people are asked whether they have been victims of crime

10

street crimes

crimes including arson, break and enter, assault, and other illegal acts disproportionately committed by people from lower classes

11

white-collar crimes

illegal acts committed by respectable, high-status people in the course of work

12

labelling theory

holds that deviance reswults not so much from the actions of the deviant as from the response of others, who label the rule breaker a deviant

13

strain

the result of a culture teaching people to value material success, but society failing to provide enough legitimate opportunities for everyone to succeed

14

control theory

holds that the rewards of deviance and crime are ample. Therefore, nearly everyone would engage in deviance and crime if they could get away with it. The degree to which people are prevented from violating norms and laws accounts for variations in the level of deviance and crime.

15

medicalization of deviance

the process of applying medical definitions to deviant behaviour, a practice that is becoming more prevalent

16

moral panic

widespread fear that occurs when many people fervently believe that some form of deviance or crime poses a profound threat to society's well-being

17

primary deviance

ppl commit a deviant act but do not get labelled as deviant by authorities

18

secondary deviance

ppl who commit deviant acts and authorities label them as such. can often happen to ppl who are members of a stigmatized group.

19

recidivism rate

the proportion of convicted offenders who commit another crime

20

restorative justice

focuses not on punishment but on rehabilitating offenders through reconciliation with victims and the larger community

21

"diversion"

an alternative procedure similar to restorative justice: i.e. a victim-offender reconciliation program (VORP). to be recommended for such, the offense must be minor.

22

iatrogenic

ivan illich said this: the more you watch someone/the more you're authoritative over someone, the more extreme length they go to to commit crime

23

legislative reform

an attempt to reduce the # of incarcerated offenders i.e. decriminalizing marijuana possession