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Flashcards in Case 4 Deck (261)
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1

What are the 4 main components of blood

RBCs- erythrocytes
White blood cells- leukocytes
Platelets- thrombocytes
Fluid-plasma

2

What is the haematocrit

The proportion of the blood that is taken up by red blood cells

3

What is the erythrocyte sedimentation rate

The rate at which RBCs settle in a tube under the forces of gravity

4

With anaemia, is the erythrocyte sedimentation rate greater or smaller

Greater

5

How wide is an erythrocyte

6-8mm

6

How long does an average erythrocyte live

120 days

7

How long do platelets last in the circulation

7-14 days

8

What is the proteins role in the plasma (5)

Reserve supply of amino acids
Carriers for other molecules
Act as buffers
Help blood to coagulate
Oncotic pressure

9

What are globulins

Proteins in the blood plasma that transport lipid and vitamins with some being immunoglobins

10

What is albumin

A negatively charged protein making up 60% of the blood
Has a role in maintaining oncotic pressure and transporting substances

11

How does oncotic pressure vary as you go along a capillary bed

It stays the same (slight raise towards venous end as fluid volume decreases)

12

What are electrolytes role in the blood

They maintain osmotic balance

13

What other substances are in the blood beyond proteins, electrolytes and blood cells

Glucose for energy
Amino acids for protein synthesis
Hormones
Dissolved gases
Vitamins and minerals
Urea and uric acid

14

How does hydrostatic pressure vary as you go through a capillary

It decreases

15

How can heart effect hydrostatic pressure in a capillary why

There may be increased hydrostatic pressure at the venous end as there is a back up in the system which may result in less fluid going back into the capillary at this end

16

How can nephrosis alter oncotic pressure

This may decrease it as there will be decreased albumin synthesis

17

What visible symptoms caused by a change in increased hydrostatic or reduced oncotic pressure result in

An oedema

18

How can a compromised immune system result in an oedema

Localised oedema can occur upon the removal of a lymph node
The immune system may also form an oedema on injury to allow an influx of chemical mediators into the site of injury to fight off any potential infection

19

Where is the spleen situated

In the left hypochondrium

20

What arteries supply the spleen

The splenic artery and vein

21

What is the function of white pulp in the spleen

It is part of the immune system and is mainly made up of white blood cells

22

What is the function of red pulp in the spleen

It is made up of connective tissue and filters the blood for antigens, microorganisms and defective red blood cells

23

What are the main key functions of the spleen

It's a lymphoid organ for the immune system
Removes old erythrocytes in the red pulp
Screens for pathogens in the white pulp
Stores platelets
Stores iron

24

Where are antigens found on erythrocytes and what are they

The surface attached to glycolipids or glycoproteins
they are short sugar chains

25

What synthesises antigens

glycosyltransferases- different types lead to different antigens

26

Why is blood group O considered a 'universal donor'

Because it contains no antigens on it's surface

27

What blood can patients with blood type A and blood type B receive

Group A or O however A is preferable
Same idea however with B

28

What blood groups can blood group AB receive

All blood groups as it contains antigen A and B on its surface so won't react when transfused

29

What antibodies are present in blood type AB

There are no antibodies present

30

What complication does giving the wrong blood type lead to

Haemolytic disease