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Flashcards in Case 2 Deck (180)
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1

Pathogenesis

The way a disease develops

2

Syncope

Fainting or passing out caused by the temporary drop in the amount of blood that flows to the brain

3

Epidermis

The outermost layer of skin tat acts as a barrier to the outside world

4

parasympathetic innervation

Slowing of the heart rate by the vagus nerve

5

Atrophy

Decrease in size and number of cells within a tissue or organ

6

Ischaemia

Reduction in blood flow to a specific organ or tissue

7

Hypertrophy

A large increase in cell size to increase tissue or organ size

8

Hyperplasia

A large increase in cell number to increase the tissue or organ size

9

Metaplasia

a reversible change in which a differentiated cell type is exchanged for another

10

Mesenchymal Stem cells

stem cells found in the connective tissue

11

Hypoxia

Reduced oxygen delivery to the tissues

12

Hypoxaemia

reduced p.p of oxygen in the blood

13

What are the requirements of a cell to function properly

Internal Homeostasis
Constant Energy Supply
Controlled cell division
Intact Plasma membrane
Safe and effective function of cellular activities
Genomic integrity

14

What restricts a cell from functioning properly

Failure of membrane functional integrity (Damage to ion pumps, bacterial toxins)
Membrane damage (free radicals)
Blockage of metabolic pathways (interruption of proteins synthesis, respiratory poisons, hormone factor lack)
DNA damage or loss (Ionising radiation, chemo, free radicals)
Mechanical disruption (Trauma, Osmotic pressure)
Energy failure (Oxygen or glucose lack, mitochondrial failure)

15

What are the consequences of anaerobic respiration in a cell

This results in a build up of acid through metabolic acidosis that denatures proteins

16

Free Radicals

Chemical radicals characterised by a single unpaired electron in the outer shell and are highly reactive

17

hat happens in a paracetamol overdose

Paracetamol contains free radicals that are usually removed but in this case damage hepatocytes (cells in the liver) and can cause chemical hepatitis

18

Necrosis

the pathological cell or tissue death in a living organism resulting in an inflammatory response

19

Coagulative necrosis

Cell death caused by ischaemia in any organ except the brain

20

infarction

Obstruction of the blood to an organ or tissue and resulting in localised cell death of that tissue

21

Liquefactive necrosis

Where necrotic tissue liquefies and hydrolytic enzymes leak from the dead cells

22

Gangrene

Necrosis when there is visible decay of tissue

23

Fibrinoid necrosis

When small blood vessels are under extreme pressure that results in necrosis of the muscle wall and seepage of plasma into these wall deposits

24

Fat necrosis

occurs in the pancreatitis release of lipases or in the breast due to direct trauma to adipose tissues

25

Apoptosis

The falling off of cells- doesn't produce an inflammatory response

26

pyknosis

The shrinkage of the nucleus in a necrotic cell

27

Karyorrhexis

The fragmentation of nuclear material

28

Dysplasia

Increased cell proliferation, abnormal morphology and decreased differentiation

29

Dystrophic calcification

The calcification of necrotic or degenerative cells anywhere in the body

30

Metastatic calcification

The deposition of calcium in otherwise healthy tissues due to elevated levels of calcium