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Flashcards in Case 1 Deck (103)
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1

What binds the thorax

The superior thoracic aperture and the diaphragm inferiorly

2

What are the anterior and posterior boundaries of the thorax

Anteriorly the sternum and posteriorly thoracic vertebrae

3

What is in the superior mediastinum

Aortic arch and branches
SVC
oesophagus and trachea
phrenic and vagus nerves
cardiac plexus and sympathetic chain
thymus and thoracic duct

4

What is the boundary of the superior and inferior mediastinum

thoracic plane at T4/5 and rib 2

5

What is in the middle mediastinum

Ascending aorta
SVC and pulmonary trunk
heart and peicardium
trachea and bronchi
nerves and tracheobronchial lymph nodes

6

What is in the posterior mediastinum

Descending thoracic aorta
Oesophagus
thoracic duct
azygous and hemiazygous veins
many arteries and the sympathitc trunk

7

At what point does the thoracic aorta become the abdominal aorta

when it passes through the abdominal hiatus at level T12

8

What main arteries go to the head and neck region and the arms

The common carotid and subclavian

9

What arteries branch off to supply the ribs

The posterior intercostal arteries

10

What arteries supply the bronchus

The bronchial arteries

11

Where does the celiac trunk branch off the abdominal aorta and what does it supply

At T12 to supply the stomach and liver

12

Where is the superior mesenteric artery found and what does it supply

L1 and it supplies the intestines

13

Where do the lumbar arteries branch off and what do they supply?

Each lumbar segment and they supply the posterior muscles

14

Where does the inferior mesenteric artery branch off and what does it supply

L3 to supply the intestines and rectum

15

Where does the aorta split into the two common iliac arteries?

L4

16

Where do the renal arteries branch off?

L1

17

What veins form the superior vena cava

The left and right internal jugular veins and the subclavian veins join together to form the brachiocephalic veins that join to form the SVC

18

What forms the inferior vena cava and at what levels

The two common iliac veins- right at L5 and left at L3
Also the lumbar, renal and hepatic veins

19

What is the extracellular matrix made up of

collagen and elastic fibres

20

What cells maintains the extracellular matrix

Fibroblasts

21

What are examples of specialised connective tissue

Cartilage, bone, blood and blood vessels

22

What is the order of blood vessel layers from superior to deep

Tunica externa (adventitia), Tunica media then tunica intima

23

What is the tunica externa made of

many collagen fibres and some elastic fibres and it is the thickest layer

24

What is the tunica media made of

smooth muscle and supported by connective tissue

25

what is the tunica intima made of

epithelial cells
connective tissue layers
some collagen but no fibroblasts

26

Where can you find the internal elastic lamina

in the tunica intima and media

27

What is the vaso vasorum

small blood vessels between the tunica media and externa that supply the muscles in the vessel walls

28

What is the first stage of atheroma formation

damage of the endothelial cells in the lining of the vessel to initiate an inflammatory response

29

What is deposited in the vessel wall to begin atheroma formation and at what layer

LDL move into the tunica intima and deposit cholesterol

30

What are foam cells

the macrophage complex with the cholesterol in the vessel wall