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Flashcards in Foundation 1 Deck (103)
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What two monomers is sucrose made up of

Glucose and fructose


What two monomers is lactose made up of

Galactose and glucose


What two monomers is maltose made from

Two glucose molecules


What is the make up of starch in plants

20-30% amylose- straight chain 1-4 glycosidic bond
70-80% amylopectin which also contains 1-6 glycosidic bonds and branches


What enzyme brakes down amylose and amylopectin



What is the main storage unit of carbohydrates in animals



What is the structure of glycoproteins

These are proteins with sugars added onto them


What can the glycolysation of proteins alter their function to be

They can be involved in recognition, adhesion and communication between cells


What group on a protein can sugars be linked to in order to glycosylate them

The R group


What are the three classifications of glycoproteins

Simple (mainly protein)
Mucins (mainly carbohydrate)
Proteoglycans (mainly carbohydrate


What is the function of mucins in the stomach

It lubricates and protects the lining from the acidic environment in the digestive tract


What is the role of cervical mucus

It can prevent infection


What does hygroscopic mean

A substance that tends to absorb and attract water


What is the basic structure and property of mucin

It contains a protein backbone that is highly O-glycosylated
They are hygroscopic and attract water
Contains a D domain that allows the mucin to form di-sulphide bonds with each other


What property allows epithelial cells to seal between adjacent cells

tight and anchoring junctions


What type of junctions allows diffusion and communication between cells

Channel forming junctions


Where is the basal lamina found and what is it's function

Between epithelial cells and the basement membrane
its a strong and flexible foundation


What makes the basement membrane and what is it's funciton

A combination of the basal and reticular lamina
It anchors the epithelial cells to the connective tissue below


What is the reticular lamina mostly made up of

Type III collagen


What are adherens junction

These are junctions from the cytoplasm of cells to actin filaments


What is focal adhesion

The attachments of cells to the basal lamina


What are gap junctions and what is their function

These are channel forming junctions between between epithelial cells
They allow cell-cell communication, movement of ions and waves of contraction in smooth muscle cells


What is the function of simple squamous epithelial cells and where are they found

They are used for absorption, filtration and act as a minimal barrier to diffusion
Found in capillaries, alveoli and abdominal and pleural cavities


What is the function of simple cuboidal epithelial cells and where are they found

Used for secretion and transportation
Found in the glands, ducts kidney tubules and the covering or the ovary


What is the function of simple columnar epithelial cells and where are they found

Absorption, protection and secretion and are found in the digestive tract


What is the function of stratified squamous epithelial cells and where are they found

These can be keratinised or non-keratinised and are used for protection in the skin, mouth, upper throat and oesophagus


What is the function of pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells and where are they found

These help with absorption and protection and are found in the upper respiratory tract or trachea
Can contain cilia


What type of epithelium is found in the bladder

urothelium- transitional epithelium that is stretchable


What colour is haematoxylin and what parts of the cell does it stain

It's blue/purple and stains the nuclei of cells


What colour is Eosin and what part fo the cell does it stain

Pink and it stains the cytoplasm