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Flashcards in Case 5 Deck (239)
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1

What is Type-1 diabetes characterised by

Insulin deficiency
Auto-immune condition
Destruction of ß-cells in pancreas

2

What is Type-2 diabetes characterised by

Insulin resistance
Associated with obesity
Most common in certain racial groups
Interplay between genes and environemtn

3

What is the mode of action fo insulin

Binds to the insulin receptor on the CSM
Intracellular cascade to translocate GLUT4 to the CSM
Glucose is transported into the cell through these transporters

4

How do you distinguish between Type-1 and 2 diabetes

Measure the insuling levels (type 1 is low 2 is high)
Send a blood sample to the lab that will test for antibodies

5

What is considered an abnormal blood glucose level and should be investigated further

Fasting >7mmol/L
Random measurement > 11.1 mmol/L

6

What would show up for Type 1 diabetics in urinalysis

Ketones in the urine

7

Who should be screened for type 2 diabetes

Overweight individuals
Vascular disease sufferers
Hypertension
Over 40
Previous gestational diabetes
Pre-diabetic states

8

What is HbAC1

This is an indicator of how much glucose is in the blood as the maount fo glucose on its surface can be measured

9

What reading on HbAC1 is diagnostic of chronic hyperglycaemia

48mmol/mol

10

How does the impaired glucose tolerance drink work

It's a drink containing 75% glucose
Blood tests are at 120 minutes and diagnosed as having 'impaired glucose tolerance' if blood glucose levels 7.8mmol/l

11

What level constitutes impaired fasting glycaemia

6.1mmol/L

12

What are typical diabetic symptoms

Thirst
increased urination
Tiredness
Weight loss
Blurred vision

13

How does Type 1 diabetes present differently to type 2

Much more acute rapid symptom onset
Generally young patients
Clear marked symptoms as opposed to mild symptoms
Mostly no family history
Most present as an emergency instead of complications

14

What is secondary diabetes

This is after medication, particularly steroids
Can also affect after pancreas conditions or rare endocrine conditions

15

Is diabetes attributed to one or many genes

It is described as polygenic as it can be attributed to many genes

16

What may there be a history of in Type 1 diabetes

Other autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease or inflammatory bowel disease

17

What are examples of monogenic diabetes and how do these affect patients

Neonatal diabetes and Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)
Strong family history and onset before 25
Often diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes but don't need to be treated with insulin in general

18

What are the risk factors for pregnant women of gestational diabetes

Overweight or obese
History of gestational diabetes
Large baby in previous pregnancies

19

When does gestational diabetes resolve

After delivery of the baby

20

How does gestational diabetes occur

Some hormones released during pregnancy interfere and cause insulin resistance

21

What cardiovascular problems can diabetes lead to

Increased risk of
Stroke
CVD
Hypertension
PVD
Absent foot pulses

22

What else can diabetes lead to beyond cardiovascular disease

Retinopathy
Nephropathy
Erectile dysfunction
Neuropathy

23

How do insulin and glucagon react after a meal

Insulin rises and glucagon drops in a response to blood glucose rising

24

What is ATP important for

Muscle contraction
Active transport
Biosynthesis
Cellular Processes
Adaptive thermogenesis

25

What is metabolism

The chemical processes by which cells produce the substances needed to sustain life

26

What is catabolism

A degradative process when you produce energy from the breakdown of energy rich molecules

27

What is anabolism

A biosynthetic process where you combine small molecules to produce complex molecules

28

What is gluconeogensis

The production of glucose

29

What is glycogenesis

The production of glycogen from glucose

30

Where is glucagon secreted

å-cells of the pancreas