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Human performance and limitations > Cardiovascular system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular system Deck (23)
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1

vasoconstriction

vessels near outer of body constrict when cold to reduce heat loss

2

vasodilation

vessels dilate when too hot to try to dissipate heat

3

pulmonary system

heart and lungs
deoxygenated blood oxygenated at lungs and taken back to heart
pulmonary artery- heart to lungs only de oxygenated artery
pulmonary vein- only vein carrying oxygenated blood

4

systemic system

heart to rest of the body

5

types of cells in blood

red- hemoglobin oxygen carrying
white - produce antibodies
platelets - assist in blood clotting
plasma - fluid, carries waste, maintains acidity

6

artories

high pressure
away from heart
thick muscular wall
carry oxygenated

7

veins

deoxygenated
back to heart
low pressure
valves stop blood going wrong way

8

capillaries

thin wall 1 cell thick
diffusion takes place- gas and nutrients exchanged
very low pressure

9

Anemia

iron deficiency
leads to reduction in red blood cells and haemoglobin
caused by blood loss
give fatigue

10

blood donating

seek prior advice
drink plenty of fluids
lie on back for 15-30 mins afterwards
wait 24hours before next duty time

11

internal respiration

takes place in the cells - energy released from food (metabolism) CO2 and water waste product(carbonic acid)

12

carbonic acid

decides ph of blood
waste product of internal respiration
if acidity levels change due to carbonic acid breathing rate is adjusted (homeostasis)

13

heart

R&L atrium - entry points for ventricles, weak pumps
R&L ventricles - main pumps- propel blood to rest of body
right - to lungs
left- to body

14

pulse rate

avg rest 75-80
number of contractions of ventricles per min and controlled by CNS
affected by:
adrenaline
exercise
eating
pain
age
body temp
gender
low blood press= higher pulse
emotion

15

cardiac output

amount of blood pumped in one minute, 5-5.5L
stroke volume x pulse rate
stroke volume= blood pumped in one contraction approx- 70ml

16

blood pressure

systolic pressure- when heart muscles contracting- 120
diastole- when muscles relaxed - 80
normal - 80/120
hypertension - 140/90
hypotension 90/60

17

hypertension

140/90
main cause of stroke
main causes:age, genetics, obesity, smoking, diet, lack of exercise
symptoms: palpitations, short breath, pale skin, angina, headaches

18

hypotension

90/60
lethargy , dizziness, fainting, stagnation in blood and coma
caused by shock or bleeding

19

barro recepter (pressorecepter)

regulate pressure
main one in carotid synus
hypertension- reduce pulse & relax vessels
opp for hypo

20

coronary heart disease

cause heart attacks
fat in tubes around heart
reduce by: exercise 3 times a week at double heart rate

21

carbon monoxide

produced by incomplete combustion
haemoglobin prefers CO- combines 210-250 time more with it than oxygen
odourless and colourless
headache first symptom
other: lethargy, tightness in head, flushed cherry skin, nausea, impaired vision, short breath

always use fresh air with cabin air
altitude exacerbates effects

22

carbon monoxide treatment

turn off cabin heat
stop smoking
take O2
increase fresh air
land ASAP
leaner fuel

23

carbon monoxide susceptibility

altitude, smoking, age, obesity, general state of health

aircraft equipped with CO detectors
check regularly