human underlay and overload and stress and stuff Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in human underlay and overload and stress and stuff Deck (24)
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1

stress

natural and inescapable
non specific response to demands placed on it
2 forms:
eustress- good
distress- bad

stress is cumulative- transfer between situations
how someone processes info can affect what stress they experience

2

factors influencing stress

the stressor
personality
environment
physiological state
many things

3

general adaption syndrome (GAS)

mechanism by which individual reacts to a perceived threat
triggered by ANS: sympathetic & parasympathetic branches
3 stages:
alarm reaction
resistance
exhaustion

4

alarm reaction

controlled by sympathetic branches
first presented with threat
adrenaline and cortisol released
increased : HR , breathing, sugar level,
slowed digestion
energy burst

acute stress- short term

5

resistance stage

parasympathetic takes over
body tries to return to normal by reducing amount of cortisol produced
stress situation ends= go back to normal
stress continues= stress hormones continue to be produced

6

exhaustion stage

resistance carries on for too long without relief of waste products
too much cortisol
don't have strength to fight stress
get:
fatigue
depression
anxiety
burnout
decreased stress tolerance
possible hearing loss
headaches and other stuff

chronic stress- long term

7

adaption syndrome reactions

psychological: brain registers fear
psychosomatic: brain triggers release of hormones adrenaline and sugars into the blood
somatic: responses of various organs of the body to the hormonal chemical releases

8

5 categories of stressors (stress stimuli)

environmental
imaginary
organisational
life
reactive

9

environmental stressors

conditions put a straight on the homeostatic mechanism or nullify it completely
internal: hunger, fatigue etc
external:
temp- 20º comfortable
body temp=36.5º, <35 hypothermia (eventually coma & death), >37 hyperthermia (heat exhaustion and stroke)- body cant keep cool

vibration- body parts have different freq but avg resonant freq= 1Hz, things vibrate and cause distraction and pain

noise- impairs performance

humidity- normal= 40-60% RH, cabin= 10-20% RH

glare- causes visual fatigue

10

life stressors

every day life stuff
add significantly to operational stressors
can arise from factors like: hunger, thirst, pain , lack of sleep
death of a spouse is a primary life stressor

11

Reactive stressors

mental, cognitive
perceived demand exceeds perceived ability
stem from bodies reaction to specific events
examples
wind shear on final
short of fuel etc

12

Organisational stressors

from company or organisation
include:
insufficient manual flying
sim checks
pay
medicals
quick turn around pressure

13

imaginary stressors

anxiety
excessive stress can lead to excessive anxiety
individual believes they have no control over events
prevalent in people with low self confidence
can affect individuals physiologically as well

14

underload

too relaxed, bored, uninterested
causes: degradation in performance, loss of situational awareness, increase in errors

15

overload

individual have limit, if exceed stress overload occurs
affect safety in flight
behavioural changes
prone to errors
prone to bias
omission
unable to prioritise
emotional
mental blocks
fixation

can reach a break point

16

break point

break point’ is the point after which, if stress continues to rise, performance is degraded and more errors and accidents occur
may mean cant even perform moderate tasks,
have break down, panic attack etc

17

Arousal

function of alertness, situational awareness, vigilance, level of distraction, stress and attention
how ready a person is to perform a task
can be over and under aroused

18

stress coping

direct action: removing problem, altering situation, removing stressor
cognitive coping: situation cannot be changed, we rationalise e.g "I can do it" before an exam, reduce emotional and physiological impacts before an exam
symptom directed coping: remove symptoms only

19

stress management

long term strategy
preventative- keep levels to a minimum
curative- reducing existing levels

health and fitness
relaxing
counselling techniques

20

Fatigue

extreme tiredness from mental or physical exertion or illness

21

short term acute fatigue

result of:
lack of sleep
long duty
jet lag
low motivation
cured with sleep

22

long term chronic fatigue

more difficult to recognise
result of:
lack of physical or mental fitness
domestic or work stress
high workload

subjective

23

strategies to stop fatigue

in flight training
conversation
keep fit and healthy
sleep
eat balanced meals
caffeine- short boost

24

fatigue risk management system

airline collect data and determine how fatigued crew are