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Flashcards in Human errors & limitations Deck (14)
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1

situational awareness

perception = reality
important to safety as important to be aware of surroundings and hazards
3 levels:
perceiving situation
understanding situation
project situation
factors affecting: stress, interruptions, fatigue, motivation, poor comms, workload, head down & more

2

keep or re gain situational awareness

pre-determine roles for high workload phases
reduce workload
motor instruments
gather information before making decision
many more
find info to prove yourself wrong

3

human errors

unintentional
skill based or rule and knowledge based

4

skill based behaviour errors

automatic process, motor programs
2 routine errors
1) action slips- intent correct but action doesn't satisfy intent, easy to detect and recover from, could come under form of omission
2)environmental capture- action made in same environment frequently, don't realise when somethings different as just follow what you always do

5

rule & knowledge base behaviours

mistakes- failures in plan and occur as a result of conscious decision making
intent incorrect but you do that wrong thing correctly
rule based- wrong procedure
knowledge based - failure to appreciate a situation and make an appropriate decision, lack of experience, complacency, confirmation bias, frequency bias

6

internal factors causing errors

mistaken perception
misinterpretation of info
no motivation
distraction
faulty memory

7

external factors causing errors

ergonomics
economics
social environment

8

Violations

deliberate actions which are illegal
increased potential to deviate from normal operation increased risk
many violations tempting as no visible drawbacks
routine violation- done over and over
exceptional violation- really bad one off
situational- violations you commit in a certain circumstance that you may believe to be the safest option

9

decision making

concept representing a voluntary and conscious process of selection, from among possible solutions for a given problem or to achieve a goal
depends on:
objective/ subjective criteria
risks if solutions
biases
perception
stress
past experience
motivation
commercial factors

10

group think

members modify their opinion to match what the group wants them to believe
people may do this to maintain position in group or maintain good relationship

11

Risk shift

in a group more susceptible to make risky decision

12

9 steps for decision making

1) diagnose & define aim
2) collect info
3) risk assessment - anything to increase likelyhood of accident, objective & subjective risks, humans bad at this, channelizing & dispersed attention can miss risks
4) develop options
5) evaluate options
6) decide- depends on 2 gains or losses, when 2 losses: Bias to riskier choice, 2 gains: make wiser decision
7) implement decision
8) consequences
9) review and feedback- working in changing environment, was the decision right and is it still the right choice if things have changed, may have to star process again

13

DECIDE

detect
explore
choose
identify
do
evaluate

14

commitment

refers to a point where we cannot change our minds and we must stick to the decision made