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Flashcards in Hazards of aviation Deck (17)
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1

3 types of acceleration

linear
radial
angular - has most physiological effects

2

3 G force planes

Gy side to side
Gx forward and aft
Gz vertical- going up we get +ve Gz

3

+ve Gz effects

blood pushed down
increased hydrostatic pressure variation
drop in blood pressure
increased body weight- limbs hard to move
3-4g organs forced down- lower face pulled down
3.5g grey out and tunnel vision
5g G-loc(gravity induced loss of consciousness)

4

-ve Gz effects

blood to head
hydrostatic pressure variation decreases
blood pressure increase
organs forced up
facial pain
breathing difficulty
-2g- severe headache, nose bleed, eyelids swell and pushed up
-3g - eyes bleed as vessels burst, red out
-4g - unconsciousness
-5g - risk of losing eyeballs and death

5

increasing G tolerance

greater pressure we can put in lower body, stop too much blood moving there
body position
straining
shouting
tensing leg muscles
anti-G suit

6

Barotrauma

pain related to pressure

7

4 main types of barotrauma?

otic
sinus
aerodontalgia(teeth)
gastrointestinal

8

otic barotrauma

pain due to pressure in the ears
eustation tube maintains balance in ears between outer and middle if blocked unequal pressure can cause pain
worse in descent
increased with cold/ infection

9

otic barotrauma may cause:

pain in temples
temporary deafness
pressure vertigo
tinnitus
rupture/ bleeding eardrum
deafness

10

to clear eustation tube:

valsavan manoeuvre- hold nose and breath down through it
frenzel manoeuvre- stifling a sneeze
yawn
move lower jaw

after this- if still in pain descend to 10000ft or MSA
then still painful land ASAP, seek medical attention

11

sinus barotrauma

4 sinus' in skull- filled with air
pain in/around temple
can incapacitate pilot and cause:
fainting
watering of eyes
nose bleed

just as bad in descent or climb
treatment: return to alt where pain started, land ASAP but descend gradually

12

gastro intestinal barotrauma

gas expanding in small intestine as climb
discomfort & pain
reduced by:
avoiding gassy food
eating slowly
small portions
not using chewing gum

relieved by relieving the gas

13

aero dontalgia barotrauma

gas pockets form in old or poor fillings or abscesses
most common in climb, as gas expands and causes sever pain

14

toxic materials

fuels, lubricants and propellants: wash hands with warm water
burning furnishings and bags- black smoke, worst thing to be on fire
anti ice
extinguisher agents
released when burning:
carbon monoxide
hydrogen cyanide
hydrogen chloride

15

Ozone

above 40000ft
ozone partly destroyed by heat of engine
can get ozone remover but heavy & expensive
symptoms:
dry throat
dry eyes
dry nose
coughing
headache
breathing difficulty

16

galactic radiation

outside solar system
predictable & steady
high energy particles
more protection at equator than at the poles
damage cells causing cancer and poss birth defects

17

solar radiation

from sun, especially solar flares
can reduce amount of galactic radiation
intense & unpredictable
lower energy particles
can cause skin cancer
affects CNS