Flashcards in Blood Transfusions - in Practice Deck (14)
What are the indications for transfusing red cells?
- Severe acute anaemia
- improve QOL in otherwise uncorrectable anaemia
- prepare for or recover from surgery
- Reverse damage by own red cells e.g. sickle cell
What are the indications for platelet transfusion?
Bone marrow failure
Prophylaxis for surgery
Bleeding Cardiopulm bypass
What are the indications for giving FFP?
Replace fluid in Massive HAemorrhage
DIC with bleeding (replaces clotting factors)
What do you need to do before giving FFP?
Get it out early, stored frozen so takes a while to thaw
Test the PT & aPTT
When do we use cryoprecipitate and what do we need to do before using it?
If they have a low fibrinogen
Stored frozen so give time to thaw and test fibrinogen
When ordering blood (non-emergency) you send 2 samples to the blood bank, what do they do with them?
Group & screen
- Direct = Autoimmune
- Indirect = Cross matching issue
What do you do if you need blood immediately?
Ask for Type O RhD -ve red cells
Or AB plasma
If it's urgent but not immediate you can ask for type specific and if it's not urgent at all they will do a full cross match
What do you do if a patient has a massive haemorrhage?
Dial 2222 (universal in uk)
It'll get you an immediate supply of 6 units red cell, 4 units ffp & 1 unit platelets
What are the major complications of a blod transfusion?
TACO - Transfusion associated circ overload
TRALI - Tranfusion associated lung injury
What do we do if someone has a reaction to a transfusion?
Check patient identity against component label
Fever - give anti-pyretic & send back to lab for testing
Urticaria - give anti-histamine & monitor for anaphylaxis
Watch out for dyspnoea, shock etc.
What is Haemolytic Disease of foetus & Newborn?
Mum with Anti-D Abs passes them on to Rhd +VE baby --> Haemolysis
How do we prevent and treat HDFN?
Give mothers Anti-D at 28wks & at delivery, this should prevent baby developing RhD
Antibody titres & doppler US --> Intrauterine transfusion
What is NAIT?
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia
Similar to HDFN but for platelets