Flashcards in Malignancies Deck (10)
What are the categories of haematological malignancies?
> Acute Leukemias - ALL/AML
> Chronic Leukaemias - CML/CLL
> Malignant Lymphomas - HL/NHL
> Multiple Myeloma
> Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
> Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
What's the difference between leukaemia & lymphoma?
They're descriptive terms: Leukaemia refers to bone marrow/blood disease
Lymphoma refers to disease mostly in the lymphoid tissue
What are the majot Acute Leukaemias?
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
What's happening in an acute vs a chronic leukaemia?
Acute - Non-differentiating leukaemic cells with bone marrow failure
Chronic - Cells are still differentiating so you get proliferation without marrow failure
Why is acute leukaemia so must faster than chronic?
Acute is rapidly fatal due to the buildup of undifferentiated blast cells and associated marrow failure
Where as marrow continues to function in chronic leukaemias
Bone marrow failure is the main presentation of leukaemia, how does that appear?
Thrombocytopenic bleeding i.e. purpura/petechiae & mucosal bleeding
Neutropenia related bacterial/fungal infections
Where in a lymph node are various lymphoid cells found?
B cells found in follicles. Undergoing selection/expansion in germinal centres & naïve cells in the mantle zone
T cells in paracortex
Plasma cells in medulla
Lymphadenopathy is very common in Lymphoma, what about it would suggest a lymphoma instead of say an infection?
Localised & Painless (if it's painful more likely to be a bacterial inf)
Generalised and painless (If it's painful its more likely a viral infection)
How could a lymphoma present systemically?
Loss of weight