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Flashcards in Intro to Haem Deck (21)
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1

What are the broad steps of Haemotopoiesis?

Pluripotent Haematopoietic stem cells

1) --> Uncommitted Stem Cells --> Myeloid Cells

2) --> Lymphocyte Stem Cells --> Lymphocytes

2

What are the myeloid cells?

- Erythrocytes
- Platelets
- Neutrophils
- Monocytes
- Basophils
- Eosinophils

Basically everything bar lymphocytes & NK cells

3

What are the lymphoid cells?

Lymphocytes (T & B Cells)
Nk cells

4

What hormone drives RBC production?

Erythropoietin

5

What hormone drives platelet production & where's it made?

Thrombopoietin
In the liver

6

Lifespan of a platelet?

7 days

7

What drives neutrophil production?

Stimulated:
- Interleukins
- Colony Stimulating Factors (CSF)

Regulated by immune responses e.g. macrophages & IL-7

8

Lifespan of a neutrophil?

1-2days

9

What can we use to improve neutrophil number?

G-CSF
Good for neutropenia

10

What do eosinophils do?

Target parasites

They're the main cells involved in allergy

11

How does the body identify different lymphocytes?

By surface antigen (aka CD markers)

12

What do the different lymphocytes do and where are they matured?

B cells make antibodies. Mature in marrow

T cells split into helper, cytotoxic & regulatory
Mature in Thymus

NK cells naturally kill

13

From what process in the development of T cells do lymphoma's arise?

DNA recombination during production. This process ensures all lymphocytes are a little different
But it can go wrong leading to lymphoma

14

What is T cell +ve selection?

If gene rearrangement results in a functional receptor the cell is allowed to survive

15

What is T cell -ve selection?

Gene rearrangement leads to a self-recognising T cell which is then killed

16

How do our bodies identify self cells?

By HLA surface antigens

17

What are the types of HLA?

Class 1 - Displays own antigens on all nucleated cells

Class 2 - displays the antigens eaten by antigen-presenting cells

18

What's the normal range for Haemoglobin, platelets & WBC?

WBC 4-10 x10^9/L
Platelets 150-400 x10^9/L

Haemoglobin 140-180 in men or 120-160g/L in women

19

What are the consequences of hypersplenism?

Pancytopenia

20

What are the consequences of hyposplenism?

Capsulated Bacteria Infection
Red Cell Changes

21

Which cells are classed as WBCs?

Neutrophils
Basophils
Eosinophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes