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Flashcards in Behaviour Therapy Deck (27)
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1

Behaviour Therapy

- Practitioners focus on directly observable behaviour, current determinants of behaviour, learning experiences that promote change, tailoring treatment strategies to individual clients, and rigorous assessment and evaluation.
- Behaviour Therapy has been used to treat a wide range of mental disorders and problems.
- Has been applied to may fields of research.

2

Classical Conditioning

- Refers to what happens prior to learning that creates a response through pairing. Pavlovian conditioning.
- Developed without any consideration of mediating factors such as thought, feeling , or emotion.

3

Operant Conditioning

- Involves a type of learning in which behaviours are influenced mainly by the consequences that follow them.
- Positive and negative reinforcement.
- Punishment and extinct techniques.
- Developed without any consideration of mediating factors such as thought, feeling , or emotion.

4

The Social-Learning Approach

- Interactional, interdisciplinary, multimodal.
- A triadic reciprocal interaction between the environment, personal factors (such as beliefs, preferences, expectations, see-perceptions, and interpretations), and individual behaviour.
- Environmental events are mainly determined by cognitive processes governing how the environmental influences are perceived by and individual and how these are interpreted.
- Self Efficacy - Is the belief ore expectation that they can master a situation and bind about desired change.

5

Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

- Represents the mainstream of contemporary behaviour therapy and is a popular theoretical orientation among psychologists.
- What people believe influences how they act or feel.
- Overtime the role of condition began to overshadow the traditional views of behaviour therapy.
- Only integrative methods are more popular than CBT.

6

Basic Charcterstiscs and Assumptions

- 1. Behaviour therapy is based on the principles and procedures of the scientific method.
- Adherence to precision and empirical evaluation.
- Concrete goals in objective terms.
- Replication of interventions.
- 2. Behaviour is not limited to observable overt actions. Behaviour also includes internal processes such as cognitions images beliefs, and emotions.
- The key is that behaviour is something that can be operationally defined.
- 3. Behaviour therapy focuses on the clients current problems and the factors influencing them, as opposed to an analysis of possible historical determinants.
- 4. Clients engaged in therapy are expected to assume an active role by engaging in specific actions to deal with their problems.
- 5. This approach assumes that change can take place without insight into underlying dynamics and without understanding the origins of psychological problems.
- 6. Assessment is an ongoing process of observation and self-monitoring that focuses on the current determinants of behaviour, including identifying the problem and evaluating the change assessment informs the treatment process.
- 7. behavioural treatment interventions are individually tailored to specific problems experienced by the client.

7

The basic goals of behaviour therapy

- To increase personal choice, and to create new conditions or learning.
- Throughout the assessment process, concrete goals are identified by the therapist and the client.
- Goals must be concrete, clear, and observable.
- Assessment continues to monitor goal process.
- The therapist and the client discus the behaviours related to the goals, including the circumstances required for change and the plan of action and work towards these goals.

8

Functional Assessment or Behavioural Analysis

- Identifies the maintaining conditions by systematically gathering information about situational antecedents.
- A) The dimensions of the problem behaviour.
- B) And the consequences.
- C) Of the problem.

9

ABC Model

Behaviour (B) is influenced some particular events that precede it called antecedents (A), and by certain events that follow it called consequences (C).

10

Antecedent Events

Cue or elicit a certain behaviour.

11

Consequences

Are events that maintain a behaviour in some way, ether by increasing or decreasing it.

12

Behaviour Assessment Interview

The therapists task is to identify the particular antecedent and consequent events that influence, or are functionally related to an individuals behaviour.

13

Positive Reinforcement

The addition of something valuable to the individual as a consequence of a certain behaviour. The value of the reinforcer is not the form or substance it takes, through rather the function that it serves; namely to maintain or increase the desired behaviour.

14

Negative Reinforcement

Involves the escape from, or the avoidance of aversive stimuli. The individual is motivated to exhibit a desired behaviour to avoid the unpleasant condition.

15

Extinction

Withholding reinforcement form a previously reinforced stimulus. Extinction can reduce or eliminate retain behaviours , but extinction does nor replace those responses the have been extinguished.

16

Punishment

Sometimes referred to as aversive control. The consequences of a certain behaviour result in a decrease of that behaviour.

17

Positive Punishment

An aversive stimulus is added after the behaviour to decrease the frequency of a behaviour.

18

Negative Punishment

A reinforcing stimulus is removed following the behaviour to decrease the frequency of a target behaviour.

19

Progressive Muscle Relaxation

- Has become inreacinguy popular as a method of teaching people to cope with the stresses produced by daily living.
- Has been used in combination with a number of other behavioural techniques.
- Has been used for a variety of different purposes and to treat a wide range of illnesses and conditions.

20

Systematic Desensiization

- Based on the principle of classical conditioning.
- Clients imagine successively more anxiety-arousing situations at the same time that they engage in a behaviour that competes with anxiety.
- Gradually clients become less sensitive or desensitised to the anxiety arousing situation.
- Considered a form of exposure therapy.
- Relaxation is taught.
- A anxiety hierarchy is developed.
- Desensitisation begins.

21

In Vivo Flooding

- Intense and prolonged exposure to the actual anxiety producing stimulus - Without engaging in any anxiety inducing behaviours allows the anxiety to decrease on its own.
- Imagined flooding follows the same procedures as In Vivo Flooding, through through the imagination and not in real life.
- Clients should be well informed about the ethical issues involved before staring therapy.
- Clients need to make informed decisions regarding their therapy and understand the pros and cons of subjecting themselves to these techniques.

22

Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)

- Is a form of exposure therapy that entails assessment and preparation imagined flooding, and cognitive restructuring in the treatment of individuals with traumatic memories; particularly Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
- The treatment uses rapid eye movement and other bilateral stimulation.
- Three phases:
- Assessment and preparation.
- Imagined Flooding.
- Cognitive Restructuring.
- Its is unclear whether the eye movement itself or the eye movement paired with the cognitive strategies elicit the change. Some have argued that the eye movement is not integral to the treatment.

23

Social Skills Training

- Is a brand category that deals with a individuals ability to interact effectively with others in various social situations. It is used to help clients develop and achieve skills in interpersonal competence.
- Includes:
- Modelling
- Psychoeducation
- Behaviour reversal
- Feedback
- A popular vacation is anger management training.

24

Assertive Training

- Teaching people how to be assertive in a variety of social situations. People have the right (though not the obligation) to express themselves.
- Skilling people up with the ability to choose whether or not they need to be assertive.
- Replacing maladaptive social skills with new skills.
- The therapist usually models the desired behaviour.
- Usually conducted in groups.

25

Self-Management

Strategies include self-monitoring, self-reward, self-contracting, and stimulus control. The basic idea of self-management interventions is that the change can be brought about by teaching people to use coping skills problematic situations. Generalisation and maintenance of the outcomes are enhanced by encouraging clients to accept responsibility or carrying out these strategies in daily life.

26

Mindfullness

- Involves being aware of our experiencing in a receptive way and engaging in activity based on this nonjudgemental awareness.
- Intentionally focusing on the present experience while at the same time achieving a distance from it.
- Developing an attitude of curiosity and compassion to the present experience.

27

Acceptance

- Is a process involving receiving ones present experience without judgement or preference, but with curiosity, kindness, and striving for full awareness of the present moment.
- A process of self-affirmation.