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The Client-Centred Approach has three basic assumptions:

- That people re trustworthy.
- That they have a vast potential for understanding themselves and resolving their problems without direct intervention on the therapists part
- That they are capable of self-directed growth they are involved in a specific kind of therapeutic relationship.


Four Periods of the Development of the Approach

- 1. 1940’s - The development of non-directive counselling.
- An alternative to directive and interpretive approaches.
- The creation of a permissive and non-directive climate in therapy.
- Taking the power away from the therapist and giving it all to the client.
- Advice, suggestion, direction, persuasion, teaching, diagnosis, and interpretation are all discouraged.
- The therapist disclosed very little, and instead focused on reflecting and clarifying the clients verbal and non-verbal communication.
- 2. 1950’s - Renamed his approach client-centered therapy.
- There was a shift from the clarification of feelings to the phenomenological word of the client. In this way the client could be best understood - from their own frame of reference.
- Focus on the actualising tendency as the basic motivational force that leads to change.
- 3. 1950’s - 1970’s - Addressed the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapy.
- "Becoming ones experience" - An openness to experience, trust in ones experience, an internal locus of evaluation, a willingness to be in process.
- a focus on how people progress through therapy.
- 4. 1980’s - 1990’s - Considerable expansion to education, couples and family counselling, industry, groups, conflict resolution, politics, and the search for world peace.
- Interest in power, and the power that people have over others and how this power is shared.
- The theory became known as the person-centred approach - reflecting the broadening application of the approach.


Self actualising people are

self-aware, free, honest caring trusting and autonomous. The ability to welcome uncertainty, acceptance of themselves and others spontaneity, and creativity, a need for privacy and solitude capacity or deep interpersonal relationships, caring for others, inner-dirpctednes, absence o f artificial dichotomies within themselves, and a sense of humour.


Rogers believed that if the therapist fosters an growth promoting environment with the following core characteristics, individuals can move forward and can become who they are meant to become.

- Congruence
- Unconditional Positive Regard
- Accurate Emphatic Understanding.


Actualising tendency

A directional process of striving toward realisation, fulfilment, autonomy, and self-determination.


Rogers identifies those who are becoming ore actualised as having the following characteristics:

- An openness to experience.
- A trust in themselves.
- An internal source of evolution.
- A willingness to continue growth.
- Harnessing these characteristics is a fundamental goal of person centred therapy.
- Clients have the capacity to clearly define their own goals.


therapeutic core conditions

- Two persons are in psychological contact.
- The first, whom we shall call the client , is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious.
- The second person, whom we term the therapist, is congruent (real or genuine) in the relationship.
- The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client.
- The therapist experiences an emphatic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference and endeavour to communicate this experience to the client.
- the communication to the client of the therapists emphatic understanding and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal degree achieved.


Congruence, or Genuineness

- Therapist are real and genuine. integrated and authentic.
- The inner experience and outer expression of their experience match.
- They can openly express feelings, reactions, and attitudes that are present in the relationship with the client.
- Self-disclosure should be structured, well timed, and with therapeutic intent.



Is a deep and subjective understanding of the client with the client.


Emotion focussed empathy assets the client to:

- 1. Pay attention to and value their experiencing.
- 2. Process their experience both cognitively and bodily.
- 3. View prior experiences in new ways.
- 4. Increase confidence in making chilled and in pursuing a course of action.


Accurate Emphatic Understanding

Implies that the therapist will sense clients feelings as if they were his or her own without becoming lost in those feelings.


Therapeutic presence

Being completely attentive to and immersed in the client as well as in the clients expressed concerns. Far more powerful than any technique.



Or addressing what is going on between the client and the therapist is highly valued in the person centred approach.


Expressive arts therapy

- Extends the person-centred approach to spontaneous creative expression, which symbolises deep and sometimes inaccessible feelings and emotional states.


Motivational Interviewing (MI)

Is a humanistic, client-centred, psychological, directive counselling approach. - A directive, client centred counselling style for eliciting behaviour change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence.