Flashcards in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Deck (22)
CBT approaches share the same characteristics and assumptions as the traditional behavioural approaches outlined above. In addition to the following:
- 1. A collaborative relationship between the client and therapist.
- 2. The premise that psychological distress is largely a result of disturbances in cognitive processes.
- 3. A focus on changing cognitions to produce desired changes in affect and behaviour.
- 4. A person-centred, time-limited focus.
- 5. An active and directive stance by the therapist.
- 6. An educational treatment focusing on specific and structured target problems.
is a central technique of cognitive therapy that teaches people how to improve themselves by replacing irrational beliefs with rational beliefs.
The therapeutic goals of REBT
Most rational emotive behaviour therapists have the general goal of teaching clients how to seperate the evaluation of their behaviours from the evaluation of themselves - their essence and their totality - and how to accept themselves in spite of their imperfections .
Is carefully designed and agreed upon and is aimed at getting clients to carry out positive actions that induce emotional and attitudinal change.
Rational emotive imagery (REI)
Clients are asked to void imagine one of the worst things that might happen to them. Healthy responses are taught instead of disruptive ones. Needs to be practiced regularly.
The rationale underlying shame attacking-exercises is that emotional disturbance related to the self is often characterised by feelings of shame guilt, anxiety, and depression.
- It is not catastrophic if someone thinks we are foolish.
- Aimed at increasing self-acceptance and mature responsibility.
- People are encouraged to do something foolish or out of the ordinary - helping us to realise that most people are not really that interested in our behaviour.
Cognitive Therapy (CT)
Was developed as a result of research into depression.
- Beck observed that depressed patients had a negative bias in their interpretation of certain life events, which contributed to cognitive distortions.
- Faulty thinking
- making incorrect inferences
- failing to distinguish between fantasy and reality.
- The way people feel and behave is influenced by how people perceive ad structure their experience.
The theoretical assumptions of CT are:
- 1. The peoples internal communication is accessible to introspection.
- 2. That clients beliefs have highly personal meanings.
- 3. That these meanings can be discovered by the client rather than being taught or interpreted by the therapist.
- Arbitrary inferences - making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence. Catastrophizing. Thinking the absolute worst.
- Selective abstraction - Forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event.
- Overgeneralizaion - Holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings.
- Magnification and Minimisation - Perceiving a case or situation in a greater or lesser light than it deserves.
- Personalisation - Relating external events to themselves , even when there is no basis for making this connection.
- Labeling and Mislabeling - Portraying ones identity on the basis of imperfections an mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define ones true identity.
- Dichotomous thinking - Categorising experiences in either-or extremes.
Making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence. Catastrophizing. Thinking the absolute worst.
Forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event.
Holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings.
Magnification and Minimisation
Perceiving a case or situation in a greater or lesser light than it deserves.
Relating external events to themselves , even when there is no basis for making this connection.
Labelling and Mislabeling
Portraying ones identity on the basis of imperfections an mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define ones true identity.
Categorising experiences in either-or extremes.
Some Differences Between CT and REBT
- In both CT and REBT reality training is highly organised.
- REBT is often highly directive, persuasive, and confrontational.
- Focus on the teaching role of the therapist.
- CT on the other hand uses socratic dialogue and open ended questions to explore the nature of the irrational thinking. Getting clients to reflect and come to their own conclusions.
- CT places more emphasis on helping clients come to conclusions themselves.
- Collaborative empiricism - The cognitive therapist assists the client in testing the validity of their cognitions.
- Ellis and Beck also differed on how they views faulty thinking.
- Ellis - irrational.
- Beck - inaccurate.
Core beliefs. A critical part of the theraputic process is restructuring distorted schema.
Cognitive Behaviour Modification (CBM)
- Focuses on chaining the clients self-verbalisations.
- Combines the best elements of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy.
- Distressing emotions are a result of maladaptive thoughts. A view shared with both REBT and CT.
Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)
A particular application of coping skills and stress management techniques. Individuals are given opportunities to deal with relatively mild stress stimuli in successful ways, so that they gradually develop a tolerance for stronger stimuli.
Procedures for dealing with the inevitable setback clients are likely to experience as they apply what they have learned to daily life.