Flashcards in 7. Leadership and influence Deck (93)
What is leadership?
Process whereby one individual influences other group members towards the attainment of defined group or organizational goals.
A process of creating a vision for others and having the power to translate this vision into a reality and then sustain it.
Leadership is a process
Involves influencing others
Take place within a group context
Involves achieving goals
Difference between leadership and management?
Leadership: when one or more people influence and energise others to work towards shared goals
Management: formulate detailed plans, create and maintain appropriate organisational structures, oversee routine operations
Having a vision
Translating that vision
Power given from below
Ideal in fast changing workplace
People follow willingly
Dealing with human resources
Ensuring smooth running
Power given from above
Ideal in predictable, stable workplaces
People do as they have to
what are the leadership theories in chronological order?
Early 1960s to present
Late 1800s, rediscovered in 1970s
Active since 1980s
Trait approach to leadership
Born to be leaders or characteristics developed early in life. This approach focuses on innate characteristics. It is the “Great Man” approach
What did early studies on the trait approach focus on?
Early studies mainly focused on great military leaders and statesmen
- Shared characteristics that could predict future greatness in people
- Looked at points in life where people were successful – and assumed they would always be successful
But…Many cases of non-leaders possessing same traits
what are the 5 key traits that differentiate leaders from followers?
High level of energy
With additional characteristics:
Need for achievement
Need for power
big 5 personality factors for leadership
openness to experience
emotional stability (low neuroticism)
what lead to the behavioural style approaches to leadership?
Dissatisfaction with trait approach
Behavioural style of leaders examined – coincided with rise in Behavioural Psychology
What the person did, not who the person was (i.e., their BEHAVIOUR)
Search for a “one style fits all” situation
(what does the successful leader do so that others can learn?)
Observe, categorise and determine behaviour leading to success
Aim of the Ohio and Michigan studies on leadership
Aim was to investigate behaviour associated with effective leadership
What were the two independent factors examined in the Ohio state studies?
initiating structure in ohio state studies
Leader behavior aimed at defining and organizing work relationships and roles
Establishing clear patterns of organisation, communication, and ways of getting things done
Consideration in ohio state studies
Leader behavior aimed at:
- Nurturing friendly, warm working relationships
- Encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal respect within the work unit (welfare of workers)
What did the michigan studies example?
the production-oriented leader and the employee-oriented leader
Production-Oriented Leader in the Michigan studies?
Constant leader influence
Direct or close supervision
Many written or unwritten rules and regulations
Focus on getting work done
Less direct/close supervision
Fewer written or unwritten rules and regulations
Focus on employee concerns and needs
What questions did the Michigan studies raise?
Suggests effective leaders are people oriented??
Can leaders be both?
How will you be viewed if you aren’t reprimanding? Fear of productivity dropping?
Emphasises importance of contextual factors on leadership
Realisation that there is no universal style to fit all situations
Need for managers or supervisors to adapt their style to fit the situation
what is an effective leader according to contingency theories?
one who can match his or her style to the particular demands of the situation.
What is Fielder's Contingency Theory?
AKA Least Preferred Co-worker.
Trait and style theory combined
Leadership is a function of both the person and the situation
Attempts to match leaders and situations to identify the optimal leadership style suited to that situation
Sole criterion for evaluation is task performance
What is the Least Preferred Co-worker measurement?
Traits measured by asking managers to assess their least preferred person to work with along 16 bipolar dimensions
Relationships with subordinates revealed
High scores on LPC indicate a relationship orientation – people they least like to work with evaluated more favourably
Low scores on LPC indicate task orientation
Certain situations favour certain managerial
approaches or styles more than others
What are the three contextual variables in Fielder's Contingency Theory and what do they determine??
3 contextual variables determine favourability of situation for a particular leadership style:
Position of power
Group atmosphere in Fielder's theory?
extent to which the group trusts and accepts their manager (leader member relations)
Task structure in Fielder's theory?
extent to which this is clear and unambiguous
Position of power in Fielder's theory?
possessed by leader and how much control to reward or punish subordinates
What does Fielder's Contingency theory support?
Leadership style is part of personality that is relatively fixed and unchanging
Reflects deep-rooted psychological characteristics
What does Fielder's Contingency theory depend on?
Confidence in employees
Willingness of subordinates to accept responsibility
What does Fielder's Contingency theory indicate should happen if the leader's style fails to fit the situation?
Change the situation
evidence is mixed