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1

What is leadership?

Process whereby one individual influences other group members towards the attainment of defined group or organizational goals.
A process of creating a vision for others and having the power to translate this vision into a reality and then sustain it.
generally:
Leadership is a process
Involves influencing others
Take place within a group context
Involves achieving goals

2

Difference between leadership and management?

Leadership: when one or more people influence and energise others to work towards shared goals

Management: formulate detailed plans, create and maintain appropriate organisational structures, oversee routine operations

3

Leadership roles

Having a vision
Translating that vision
Establish direction
Motivating
Inspiring
Energizing
Power given from below
Ideal in fast changing workplace
People follow willingly

4

management roles

Planning
Organising
Achieve results
Dealing with human resources
Controlling
Ensuring smooth running
Power given from above
Ideal in predictable, stable workplaces
People do as they have to

5

what are the leadership theories in chronological order?

Traits/Universal
Attributes Approach
1800s-1940s
Revived 1990s

Behavioural/Style
Process Approach
1940s-1970s
Revived 2000s

Situational-
Contingency Approach
Early 1960s to present

Transformational
Charismatic Approach
Late 1800s, rediscovered in 1970s
Active since 1980s

6

Trait approach to leadership

Born to be leaders or characteristics developed early in life. This approach focuses on innate characteristics. It is the “Great Man” approach

7

What did early studies on the trait approach focus on?

Early studies mainly focused on great military leaders and statesmen
- Shared characteristics that could predict future greatness in people
- Looked at points in life where people were successful – and assumed they would always be successful

But…Many cases of non-leaders possessing same traits

8

what are the 5 key traits that differentiate leaders from followers?

Intelligence
Dominance
Self-confidence
High level of energy
Task-related knowledge

With additional characteristics:
Need for achievement
Need for power
Goal directedness

9

big 5 personality factors for leadership

openness to experience
conscientiousness
extraversion
agreeableness
emotional stability (low neuroticism)

10

what lead to the behavioural style approaches to leadership?

Dissatisfaction with trait approach

Behavioural style of leaders examined – coincided with rise in Behavioural Psychology

What the person did, not who the person was (i.e., their BEHAVIOUR)

Search for a “one style fits all” situation

(what does the successful leader do so that others can learn?)

Observe, categorise and determine behaviour leading to success

11

Aim of the Ohio and Michigan studies on leadership

Aim was to investigate behaviour associated with effective leadership

12

What were the two independent factors examined in the Ohio state studies?

Initiating structure
consideration

13

initiating structure in ohio state studies

Leader behavior aimed at defining and organizing work relationships and roles
Establishing clear patterns of organisation, communication, and ways of getting things done

14

Consideration in ohio state studies

Leader behavior aimed at:
- Nurturing friendly, warm working relationships
- Encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal respect within the work unit (welfare of workers)

15

What did the michigan studies example?

the production-oriented leader and the employee-oriented leader

16

Production-Oriented Leader in the Michigan studies?

Constant leader influence
Direct or close supervision
Many written or unwritten rules and regulations
Focus on getting work done

17

Employee-oriented leader

Relationship-focused environment
Less direct/close supervision
Fewer written or unwritten rules and regulations
Focus on employee concerns and needs

18

What questions did the Michigan studies raise?

Suggests effective leaders are people oriented??
Can leaders be both?
How will you be viewed if you aren’t reprimanding? Fear of productivity dropping?

19

Situational-contingency approaches

Emphasises importance of contextual factors on leadership
Realisation that there is no universal style to fit all situations
Need for managers or supervisors to adapt their style to fit the situation

20

what is an effective leader according to contingency theories?

one who can match his or her style to the particular demands of the situation.

21

What is Fielder's Contingency Theory?

AKA Least Preferred Co-worker.

Trait and style theory combined

Leadership is a function of both the person and the situation

Attempts to match leaders and situations to identify the optimal leadership style suited to that situation

Sole criterion for evaluation is task performance

22

What is the Least Preferred Co-worker measurement?

Traits measured by asking managers to assess their least preferred person to work with along 16 bipolar dimensions
Relationships with subordinates revealed

High scores on LPC indicate a relationship orientation – people they least like to work with evaluated more favourably
Low scores on LPC indicate task orientation

Certain situations favour certain managerial
approaches or styles more than others

23

What are the three contextual variables in Fielder's Contingency Theory and what do they determine??

3 contextual variables determine favourability of situation for a particular leadership style:

Group atmosphere
Task structure
Position of power

24

Group atmosphere in Fielder's theory?

extent to which the group trusts and accepts their manager (leader member relations)

25

Task structure in Fielder's theory?

extent to which this is clear and unambiguous

26

Position of power in Fielder's theory?

possessed by leader and how much control to reward or punish subordinates

27

What does Fielder's Contingency theory support?

Leadership style is part of personality that is relatively fixed and unchanging
Reflects deep-rooted psychological characteristics

28

What does Fielder's Contingency theory depend on?

Value system
Personal wants
Confidence in employees
Willingness of subordinates to accept responsibility

29

What does Fielder's Contingency theory indicate should happen if the leader's style fails to fit the situation?

Leave or
Change the situation

evidence is mixed

30

What does the path-goal theory of leadership examine?

Examines employee motivation in a given situation
Not just about leader and situation – motivation too.