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What is an attitude?

“A general and enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object, or issue”

Some evaluative judgment - the extent to which we hold favourable or unfavourable views of a person, object, or issue…
Relatively stable
Affective, cognitive, and behavioural components


Does attitude influence behaviour?

Assumption that attitudes underpin/influence actual behaviour
Early research did not support this assumption


what is the theory of reasoned action?

Positive or negative evaluation --> Attitude toward the behaviour.

Subjective norms are the extent to which important others would approve

Behavioural intention is influenced by the attitude and the subjective norm.

The behavioural intention leads to behaviour


How does control play a role in the theory of reasoned action?

Perceived behavioural control is a perceived ease and control over engaging in the behaviour


How do direct and indirect beliefs affect the theory of reasoned action?

Behavioural beliefs affect the attitude towards the behaviour

Normative beliefs influence the subject norm

the control beliefs influence the perceived behavioural control.

These all then affect intention then behaviour


What do behavioural beliefs determine?

underpin attitude
What are the advantages of the behaviour?
What are the disadvantages of the behaviour?


what do normative beliefs determine?

underpin subjective norm
Who would approve of my engaging in the behaviour?
Who would disapprove of my engaging the behaviour?


what do control beliefs determine?

underpin PBC
What are the perceived barriers to engaging in the behaviour?
What are the perceived facilitators to engaging in the behaviour?


why are salient beliefs important?

Salient beliefs underpinning a behaviour are the major determinants of that behaviour -> therefore, identify salient beliefs and potentially modify behaviour


What are the characteristics of the theory of planned behaviour?

One of most frequently tested/applied model of attitude-behaviour relations
Well-validated model of attitude-behaviour relations and decision-making
Reasoned not necessarily rational
Meta-analytical support for the model and relationships proposed between constructs


what is some meta-analytical support for the theory of planned behaviour?

Armitage & Conner (2001) meta-analysis
TPB accounted for 27% and 39% of the variance in behaviour and intention, respectively
PBC a strong, consistent predictor
Relative to the other predictors, subjective norm was a weaker predictor
Theoretically expected that importance varies
“The relative importance of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control in the prediction of intention is expected to vary across behaviors and situations”


what is the intention-behaviour gap?

It is the unexplained variance in the theory of planned behaviour between behaviour and intention.
There is a gap in the variance explained in behaviours versus intentions (more variance explained in intention)
Therefore, more variance could still be explained in intention and behaviour


How can intentions be better translated into actual behaviour?

“If-then” plans that specify the where, when, and how
Evidence supports the value of forming implementation intentions in increasing the translation of intentions into behaviour


BSE study in implementation intentions

Aim to increase likelihood that women conduct breast self examinations (BSEs)
found support for implementation intentions
Value of implementation intentions has been shown for various behaviours


Encouraging compliance with the speed limit study (Elliott & Armitage, 2006)

Similar design to the BSE study in that participants randomly assigned to intervention or control group
support for implementation intentions was found
One month later, self-reported compliance with speed limits significantly increased for intervention participants but not for control participants
The more behavioural strategies identified the better


what is the weakness of the TPB?

TPB’s standard constructs (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, and PBC) may be considered necessary but not (always) sufficient
Other variables can predict intentions and behaviour independently of the TPB’s standard constructs (over and above the standard constructs)
Examples have included affective influences (e.g., anticipated regret) as well as other normative influences


what are some other normative influences on the on behaviour that are not considered in the TPB?

Ajzen supports the addition of other variables to the TPB under specific situations (e.g., when they make theoretical sense and when they add to the prediction of behaviour)
Bolster normative influences in the model – over and above the influence of subjective norm and includes moral norm and group norm


moral norm

perceptions of what one “ought” to do (legal behaviours; speeding)


group norm

perceptions of what particular groups of important others would approve of/engage in themselves


What are ALL the possible factors that influence behavioural intention?

Attitude towards the behaviour
subjective norms
perceived behavioural control
group norm
moral norm
anticipated regret
other construct/s??


what are the cognitive models of persuasion?

Elaboration Likelihood Model
Heuristic-Systematic Model
Dual-Pathway models of persuasion


what is the degree of elaboration?

Motivation and ability to process


what are the two pathways to persuasion?

the ELM central Route and the ELM peripheral route


what is the ELM central route?

If people are highly motivated and able to process a persuasive message (elaboration is high), they will engage in deeper processing and likely be more heavily influenced by the quality/strength of message arguments


what is the ELM peripheral route?

If people are not highly motivated or able to process a message (elaboration is low), they may be more influenced by simple cues in the message (e.g., attractiveness or trustworthiness of the source)


What are the characteristics of the factors influencing elaboration?

Many factors may influence motivation and ability to process (elaboration)
Factors may have multiple roles in the persuasion context
Personal relevance/involvement with the issue helps to motivate message scrutiny
Petty, Cacioppo, and Goldman (1981) demonstrated the impact of personal relevance…


what was involved in Petty, Cacioppo and Goldman's study on personal relevance and persuasion?

** just need to know the gist**
Participants were undergraduates
Informed that the university was reviewing academic policies (more exams!)
Researchers manipulated 3 variables:
-personal relevance (low [exams added in a decade’s time], high [exams added next year/during their degree])
-message argument strength (weak [anecdotes], strong [compelling arguments])
-source credibility (inexpert [local high school class formed the proposal], expert [Commission of Higher Education formed the proposal])
Based on the ELM, the predictions were that:
When involvement/relevance is high, attitudes will be influenced more by argument strength
When low, attitudes will be influenced more by source credibility


How can road safety campaigns be defined?

“Purposeful attempts to inform, persuade, and motivate a population (or sub-group of a population) to change its attitudes and/or behaviours to improve road safety, using organised communications involving specific media channels with a given time period, often supplemented by other safety-promoting activities (enforcement, education, legislation, enhancing personal commitment, rewards, etc)”


What are the key implications of the "Designing and evaluating an anti-speeding advertising campaign for an organisational (fleet) context" study?

Findings highlight the value of:

developing an intervention based on a sound theoretical framework; and

the need to adopt a considered, consultative, and largely explorative (qualitative) approach when developing public education messages. Such an approach ensures that the intervention aligns with the specific needs, and targets the beliefs, of personnel within a particular organisation.


What are the future directions provided by the "Designing and evaluating an anti-speeding advertising campaign for an organisational (fleet) context" study?

Drawing upon findings from the research:

Insights into belief types and function (challenge or emphasise) to use in messages

Importance of addressing the “right” motivator of behaviour for the particular intended target audience