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1

define personality

enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour that are expressed in different circumstances
- Unique to each individual
- Traits - consistent across situations and time
Self-concept: perceptions
Self esteem: evaluation

2

How do we understand psychological phenomena?

through two types of psychological models: descriptive and process models

3

what do descriptive models seek to example?

What are we like?
How many elements are there?
Focus on explaining stable elements
Examples: Traits, values

4

what do process models seek to example?

How do we come to be like we are?
What processes result in behaviour?
Focus on explaining dynamic elements
Examples: Psychodynamics, social cognitive theories

5

What is Freud's explanation of personality

Psychoanalytic theory

Id, Ego, and Superego formed from psychic energy (Libido)

A dynamic personality system - Regular conflicts between the three parts

6

id

Instinctual nature of humans

7

ego

rational and objective

8

superego

internalized moral standards

9

trait model

Psychometric approach
Personality: a set of traits
Individual differences in each trait

10

What are the major dimensions (traits) of human personality?

Number
Nature

11

what is the lexical approach of the trait model?

check dictionary for adjectives that describe people - remove synonyms
ask people to rate themselves on these adjectives
conduct statistical analyses to determine which adjectives go together - form groups of adjectives where people higher on one are typically higher on the other

12

what is the five factor model?

Five factors that describe people at the most general level:

Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

13

openness

Intellectual curiosity and independence
Adjectives: imaginative, daring, curious, original

14

conscientiousness

Organised, persistent, and dependable
Adjectives: hardworking, reliable, persevering

15

extroversion

Outgoing and sociable
Adjectives: talkative, friendly, fun-loving, sociable

16

agreeableness

Compassionate and trusting of others
Adjectives: soft-hearted, courteous, trusting,

17

neuroticism

Emotionally variable and impulsive
Adjectives: nervous, worrying, self-conscious

18

Dark Triad of personality

Personality characteristics most people find offensive, but not necessarily pathological

includes:
Psychopathy, Narcissism, Machiavellianism

19

psychopahty

egocentrism, superficial charm, lacking empathy, lacking guilt (Hare, 1996)

20

narcicissim

love for the self far stronger than love for others; perceptions of self-superiority and entitlement

21

Machiavellianism

Manipulative, deceitful, usually for personal gain

22

What is in the HEXACO trait model?

Honesty-Humility (H)
Emotionality (E)
Extraversion (X):
Agreeableness (A):
Conscientiousness (C):
Openness to Experience (O):

23

Honesty-Humility (H)

Facets: Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, Modesty
Adjectives: Sincere, honest, faithful, loyal, modest/unassuming versus sly, deceitful, greedy, pretentious, hypocritical, boastful

24

Emotionality (E)

Facets: Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality
Adjectives: Emotional, oversensitive, sentimental, fearful, anxious, vulnerable versus brave, tough, independent, self-assured

25

Extraversion (X):

Facets: Social Self-Esteem, Social Boldness, Sociability, Liveliness
Adjectives: Outgoing, lively, extraverted, sociable, talkative, cheerful, active versus shy, passive, withdrawn, introverted, quiet

26

Agreeableness (A):

Facets: Forgivingness, Gentleness, Flexibility, Patience
Adjectives: patient, tolerant, peaceful, mild, agreeable, lenient, gentle versus ill-tempered, quarrelsome, stubborn, choleric

27

Conscientiousness (C):

Facets: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Prudence
Adjectives: organized, disciplined, diligent, careful, thorough, precise versus sloppy, negligent, reckless, lazy, irresponsible,

28

Openness to Experience (O):

Facets: Aesthetic Appreciation, Inquisitiveness, Creativity, Unconventionality
Adjectives: intellectual, creative, unconventional, innovative, ironic versus shallow, unimaginative, conventional

29

Type A vs Type B personality trait model

Competitive, ambitious, impatient, aggressive vs relaxed

30

what are the two underlying dimensions of Type A personality?

Achievement Striving (hard workers – related to Job Performance)
Impatience/irritability (obsession with time – related to poor health outcomes)