Flashcards in 11. Personality/individual differences Deck (57)
enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour that are expressed in different circumstances
- Unique to each individual
- Traits - consistent across situations and time
Self esteem: evaluation
How do we understand psychological phenomena?
through two types of psychological models: descriptive and process models
what do descriptive models seek to example?
What are we like?
How many elements are there?
Focus on explaining stable elements
Examples: Traits, values
what do process models seek to example?
How do we come to be like we are?
What processes result in behaviour?
Focus on explaining dynamic elements
Examples: Psychodynamics, social cognitive theories
What is Freud's explanation of personality
Id, Ego, and Superego formed from psychic energy (Libido)
A dynamic personality system - Regular conflicts between the three parts
Instinctual nature of humans
rational and objective
internalized moral standards
Personality: a set of traits
Individual differences in each trait
What are the major dimensions (traits) of human personality?
what is the lexical approach of the trait model?
check dictionary for adjectives that describe people - remove synonyms
ask people to rate themselves on these adjectives
conduct statistical analyses to determine which adjectives go together - form groups of adjectives where people higher on one are typically higher on the other
what is the five factor model?
Five factors that describe people at the most general level:
Openness to experience
Intellectual curiosity and independence
Adjectives: imaginative, daring, curious, original
Organised, persistent, and dependable
Adjectives: hardworking, reliable, persevering
Outgoing and sociable
Adjectives: talkative, friendly, fun-loving, sociable
Compassionate and trusting of others
Adjectives: soft-hearted, courteous, trusting,
Emotionally variable and impulsive
Adjectives: nervous, worrying, self-conscious
Dark Triad of personality
Personality characteristics most people find offensive, but not necessarily pathological
Psychopathy, Narcissism, Machiavellianism
egocentrism, superficial charm, lacking empathy, lacking guilt (Hare, 1996)
love for the self far stronger than love for others; perceptions of self-superiority and entitlement
Manipulative, deceitful, usually for personal gain
What is in the HEXACO trait model?
Openness to Experience (O):
Facets: Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, Modesty
Adjectives: Sincere, honest, faithful, loyal, modest/unassuming versus sly, deceitful, greedy, pretentious, hypocritical, boastful
Facets: Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality
Adjectives: Emotional, oversensitive, sentimental, fearful, anxious, vulnerable versus brave, tough, independent, self-assured
Facets: Social Self-Esteem, Social Boldness, Sociability, Liveliness
Adjectives: Outgoing, lively, extraverted, sociable, talkative, cheerful, active versus shy, passive, withdrawn, introverted, quiet
Facets: Forgivingness, Gentleness, Flexibility, Patience
Adjectives: patient, tolerant, peaceful, mild, agreeable, lenient, gentle versus ill-tempered, quarrelsome, stubborn, choleric
Facets: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Prudence
Adjectives: organized, disciplined, diligent, careful, thorough, precise versus sloppy, negligent, reckless, lazy, irresponsible,
Openness to Experience (O):
Facets: Aesthetic Appreciation, Inquisitiveness, Creativity, Unconventionality
Adjectives: intellectual, creative, unconventional, innovative, ironic versus shallow, unimaginative, conventional
Type A vs Type B personality trait model
Competitive, ambitious, impatient, aggressive vs relaxed