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Flashcards in 9. Diversity/culture/climate Deck (42)
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1

Define culture

“A Culture is a group of people who share assumptions about behaviours demonstrating positive or negative values.”
shared meanings for understanding and acting in the world

2

what are the 2 perspectives of culture

– Systems-oriented view
– Practice-oriented view

3

Systems-oriented view of culture

• Norms, beliefs, values shared by a group of people
• Factor that influences behaviour of individuals – independent variable
• Focus on enduring aspects of culture
• Long-term perspective –meanings are stable and change slowly

4

practice oriented view of culture

• Reproduction of meaning through everyday activities and practices
• Factor that both produces shared meanings and is influenced by shared meanings
• Focus on how shared meanings are reproduced and changed
• Short-term perspective – practices (and meanings) can change quickly as people adapt their activities for different contexts and situations

5

5 basic dimensions of culture

1. power distance
2. individualism (vs collectivism)
3. Masculinity
4. Uncertainty Avoidance
5. Long-term orientation

6

power distance

• level of acceptance of inequality between people in a society

7

individualism (v collectivism)

degree to which a society reinforces individual achievement instead of collective achievement and interpersonal relationships

8

masculinity

degree to which societies reinforce the traditional masculine work role model of achievement, control, and power

9

Uncertainty avoidance

level of avoidance of uncertainty and ambiguity within a society

10

long-term orientation

degree to which societies embraces, or does not embrace, long-term devotion to traditional values – expectations that change occurs slowly

11

organisational culture

– shared, “taken-for-granted” assumptions that members of an organization have and which affect the way they act, think, and perceive their environment
– i.e., a systems-oriented view

12

what what the organisational culture typologies

role culture
power culture
person culture
task culture

13

role-culture

-bureaucratic
-rule-following
-emphasis on predictability and consistency

14

power culture

-key figures hold and use power
-few formal rules to restrain power

15

person culture

-focus on benefiting people in group
-goals set by people themselves

16

task culture

-focus on work tasks
-engage with others in pragmatic ways
-goals set by task needs

17

clan culture

-collaboration
-focus on employee
development

Flexibility and Discretion
Internal Focus and Integration

18

adhocracy culture

-creativity
-focus on new ideas and innovations

Flexibility and Discretion
External Focus and Differentiation

19

hierarchy culture

-control
- focus on efficiency and standardisation

Stability and Control
Internal Focus and Integration

20

market culture

-competition
- focus on competitors and clients

Stability and Control
External Focus and Differentiation

21

organisational climate

the affective dimension of culture: felt “experience” of culture by employees
– “…surface manifestation of culture”
– “…how work environments are cognitively appraised and represented in terms of their meaning to and significance for individual employees”

22

Different aspects of organisational culture

safety culture
client-oriented culture
diversity culture

23

safety culture

systems, norms, and practices to
reduce injury and maintain health

24

client-oriented culture

systems, norms, and
practices for availability, e.g. 24/7 contact

25

diversity culture

systems, norms, and practices
for treating people with different backgrounds,
customs, and beliefs

Culture that accepts and values differences in employees, e.g.,
– Gender
– Sexuality
– Religion
– Abilities
– Cultural identity
– Age

26

what is intolerance to diversity culture?

Discriminatory practices
harassment
intimidation
mockery, insults
exclusion
incivility

27

discrimination practices

Unequal reward for equal work
e.g. Denying opportunities to women of “child-bearing” age

28

harassment

Unwanted sexual advances or other hostile conduct
e.g. Hiring strippers for office
parties

29

intimitation

Threats or bullying e.g. Persistent unwarranted criticism of work

30

mockery, insults

Jokes or negative stereotypes targeting particular individuals or groups
e.g. Asking Muslim employees if they are terrorists “as a
joke