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Flashcards in 2. Stereotypes and Prejudice Deck (38)
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1

Define stereotypes

generalized beliefs about a group
often their characteristics e.g., traits, intelligence

2

define prejudice

biased evaluations (good-bad) of a group and its members (“pre-judging”)

3

define discrimination

differential behaviour towards a group and its members
usually refers to negative behaviour

4

What is the typical working model of stereotypes and prejudice

stereotypes lead to prejudice
prejudice leads to discrimination

OR

Stereotypes come from prejudice and prejudice comes from discrimination

5

what are the components of stereotypes?

Traits: e.g., skilled, friendly

Roles: e.g., decision-maker, emotional support provider

Physical characteristics: e.g., strong, pretty

Occupations: e.g., firefighter, teacher



6

What are implicit stereotypes?

Associations we may be unaware of or outwardly deny we hold
e.g., associate men with science and women with humanities
Can also reflect implicit prejudice: “unconscious bias”
e.g., associate “good” with the young and “bad” with the old

7

When having an association does not lead to prejudice or discrimination what may it suggest?

Having an association does not always mean being prejudiced, or lead to discrimination
May reflect exposure to stereotypes/prejudice in society

8

are stereotypes valid?

Groups differ in real ways
e.g., practices, norms, beliefs
stereotypes may contain “grains of truth”

9

what are the weaknesses of stereotypes?

over-generalisation
motivated reasoning

10

define over-generalisation

applied to ALL group members
where exceptions occur, ignore these or “bracket them off” (subtyping)

11

define motivated reasoning

invoke particular stereotypes to justify group treatment

e.g., stereotyping to justify poor treatment
stereotypes may lead to
biased hypothesis testing and self-fulfilling prophecies

12

define biased hypothesis testing

we look for information that confirms stereotype

13

define self-fulfilling prophecies

our actions contribute to stereotyped behaviour

Stereotype employee as lazy --> treat employee as lazy --> employee motivation and performance declines --> employee actually becomes lazy --> stereotype employee as lazy

14

what was the stereotype example provided in the lecture

women in gaming

Stereotypes: men’s and women’s capacities and interests

Prejudiced attitudes:
Men = interested in and good at games
Women = not interested in and bad at games

Discrimination:
women’s fewer job opportunities
greater workplace harassment

Broader influence on society:
industry practices and outcomes (e.g., lost economic opportunities)
product development and marketing (which games get made)
greater social inequality

15

is discrimination valid?

Often easier to interact/exchange with in-group members than with outgroup members
for outgroups, we may need to understand and negotiate different rules and expectations

16

how do in-group biases undermine benefits to society?

power differentials, marginalised groups, stratified society
lose access to useful ideas and perspectives

Discrimination may contrast with other cultural values
e.g., in Australia: equality and tolerance

17

what is the social identity perspective to discrimination?

Our group memberships contribute to how we feel about ourselves (self-esteem or positive self-regard)
Group memberships are defined in relation to other groups
“in-group” implies “outgroup”
a specific comparison group (e.g., Australians v. New Zealanders)
a more general “not us”
We favour in-groups over outgroups
good in-group outcomes contribute to our positive self-regard
findings in real settings are mixed-we don’t always favour in-groups

18

what are the intergroup approaches to reducing prejudice?

Changing group interactions and boundaries:

Contact hypothesis
Social identity approach
Interdependence

19

what are the individual approaches to reducing prejudice?

Target prejudiced beliefs and emotions:

Counter-stereotypes
Awareness raising
Perspective-taking
Normative influence
Dissonance
Self-affirmation

20

What are the intergroup approaches to reducing prejudice?

The Contact Hypothesis (Allport, 1954)

Having members of antagonistic groups interact

Optimal conditions of contact:
Equal status between groups
Common goals
Intergroup cooperation/no competition context
Support of legitimate authorities, laws or customs

21

What is the contact hypothesis?

Review of research (Pettigrew, 1998)
prejudice reduction is greatest when all conditions present
some reduction is achieved when only some conditions present
the potential to become friends with outgroup members is an additional contact condition

22

what are the extensions of the contact hypothesis?

Extended contact
Imagined contact

23

what is a social identity approach?

decategorisation
recategorisation
cross categorisation
Integration

24

define decategorisation

downplay group identity and focus on individual identity

Get people to think about individuals rather than groups
Personal ID

We may reduce our own prejudice but we may be less aware of the broader prejudice that endures
Structural disadvantages

25

define recatetorisation

downplay separate group identities by focusing on shared superordinate group

26

define cross categorisation

identify shared/common characteristics and identities

27

define integration

recognize both group differences and commonalities

28

define interdependence

people can overcome prejudice in the short-term when their own outcomes depend on it
e.g., performing on a joint work-task
repeated experiences over time can change long-term prejudiced views

29

define counter-stereotypes

Present different, non-stereotypical images of group members
highlight group members who don’t fit stereotypes
highlight activities common in group that don’t fit stereotypes

30

define awareness raising

Make people aware of their own stereotypes or prejudice

Tell people to suppress stereotypes (often counterproductive)

Tell people to remember their past prejudiced behaviour
can induce guilt and hence willingness to repair relationships

Make people aware of stereotypes they take for granted…