Flashcards in 2. Stereotypes and Prejudice Deck (38)
generalized beliefs about a group
often their characteristics e.g., traits, intelligence
biased evaluations (good-bad) of a group and its members (“pre-judging”)
differential behaviour towards a group and its members
usually refers to negative behaviour
What is the typical working model of stereotypes and prejudice
stereotypes lead to prejudice
prejudice leads to discrimination
Stereotypes come from prejudice and prejudice comes from discrimination
what are the components of stereotypes?
Traits: e.g., skilled, friendly
Roles: e.g., decision-maker, emotional support provider
Physical characteristics: e.g., strong, pretty
Occupations: e.g., firefighter, teacher
What are implicit stereotypes?
Associations we may be unaware of or outwardly deny we hold
e.g., associate men with science and women with humanities
Can also reflect implicit prejudice: “unconscious bias”
e.g., associate “good” with the young and “bad” with the old
When having an association does not lead to prejudice or discrimination what may it suggest?
Having an association does not always mean being prejudiced, or lead to discrimination
May reflect exposure to stereotypes/prejudice in society
are stereotypes valid?
Groups differ in real ways
e.g., practices, norms, beliefs
stereotypes may contain “grains of truth”
what are the weaknesses of stereotypes?
applied to ALL group members
where exceptions occur, ignore these or “bracket them off” (subtyping)
define motivated reasoning
invoke particular stereotypes to justify group treatment
e.g., stereotyping to justify poor treatment
stereotypes may lead to
biased hypothesis testing and self-fulfilling prophecies
define biased hypothesis testing
we look for information that confirms stereotype
define self-fulfilling prophecies
our actions contribute to stereotyped behaviour
Stereotype employee as lazy --> treat employee as lazy --> employee motivation and performance declines --> employee actually becomes lazy --> stereotype employee as lazy
what was the stereotype example provided in the lecture
women in gaming
Stereotypes: men’s and women’s capacities and interests
Men = interested in and good at games
Women = not interested in and bad at games
women’s fewer job opportunities
greater workplace harassment
Broader influence on society:
industry practices and outcomes (e.g., lost economic opportunities)
product development and marketing (which games get made)
greater social inequality
is discrimination valid?
Often easier to interact/exchange with in-group members than with outgroup members
for outgroups, we may need to understand and negotiate different rules and expectations
how do in-group biases undermine benefits to society?
power differentials, marginalised groups, stratified society
lose access to useful ideas and perspectives
Discrimination may contrast with other cultural values
e.g., in Australia: equality and tolerance
what is the social identity perspective to discrimination?
Our group memberships contribute to how we feel about ourselves (self-esteem or positive self-regard)
Group memberships are defined in relation to other groups
“in-group” implies “outgroup”
a specific comparison group (e.g., Australians v. New Zealanders)
a more general “not us”
We favour in-groups over outgroups
good in-group outcomes contribute to our positive self-regard
findings in real settings are mixed-we don’t always favour in-groups
what are the intergroup approaches to reducing prejudice?
Changing group interactions and boundaries:
Social identity approach
what are the individual approaches to reducing prejudice?
Target prejudiced beliefs and emotions:
What are the intergroup approaches to reducing prejudice?
The Contact Hypothesis (Allport, 1954)
Having members of antagonistic groups interact
Optimal conditions of contact:
Equal status between groups
Intergroup cooperation/no competition context
Support of legitimate authorities, laws or customs
What is the contact hypothesis?
Review of research (Pettigrew, 1998)
prejudice reduction is greatest when all conditions present
some reduction is achieved when only some conditions present
the potential to become friends with outgroup members is an additional contact condition
what are the extensions of the contact hypothesis?
what is a social identity approach?
downplay group identity and focus on individual identity
Get people to think about individuals rather than groups
We may reduce our own prejudice but we may be less aware of the broader prejudice that endures
downplay separate group identities by focusing on shared superordinate group
define cross categorisation
identify shared/common characteristics and identities
recognize both group differences and commonalities
people can overcome prejudice in the short-term when their own outcomes depend on it
e.g., performing on a joint work-task
repeated experiences over time can change long-term prejudiced views
Present different, non-stereotypical images of group members
highlight group members who don’t fit stereotypes
highlight activities common in group that don’t fit stereotypes