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Define stereotypes

generalized beliefs about a group
often their characteristics e.g., traits, intelligence


define prejudice

biased evaluations (good-bad) of a group and its members (“pre-judging”)


define discrimination

differential behaviour towards a group and its members
usually refers to negative behaviour


What is the typical working model of stereotypes and prejudice

stereotypes lead to prejudice
prejudice leads to discrimination


Stereotypes come from prejudice and prejudice comes from discrimination


what are the components of stereotypes?

Traits: e.g., skilled, friendly

Roles: e.g., decision-maker, emotional support provider

Physical characteristics: e.g., strong, pretty

Occupations: e.g., firefighter, teacher


What are implicit stereotypes?

Associations we may be unaware of or outwardly deny we hold
e.g., associate men with science and women with humanities
Can also reflect implicit prejudice: “unconscious bias”
e.g., associate “good” with the young and “bad” with the old


When having an association does not lead to prejudice or discrimination what may it suggest?

Having an association does not always mean being prejudiced, or lead to discrimination
May reflect exposure to stereotypes/prejudice in society


are stereotypes valid?

Groups differ in real ways
e.g., practices, norms, beliefs
stereotypes may contain “grains of truth”


what are the weaknesses of stereotypes?

motivated reasoning


define over-generalisation

applied to ALL group members
where exceptions occur, ignore these or “bracket them off” (subtyping)


define motivated reasoning

invoke particular stereotypes to justify group treatment

e.g., stereotyping to justify poor treatment
stereotypes may lead to
biased hypothesis testing and self-fulfilling prophecies


define biased hypothesis testing

we look for information that confirms stereotype


define self-fulfilling prophecies

our actions contribute to stereotyped behaviour

Stereotype employee as lazy --> treat employee as lazy --> employee motivation and performance declines --> employee actually becomes lazy --> stereotype employee as lazy


what was the stereotype example provided in the lecture

women in gaming

Stereotypes: men’s and women’s capacities and interests

Prejudiced attitudes:
Men = interested in and good at games
Women = not interested in and bad at games

women’s fewer job opportunities
greater workplace harassment

Broader influence on society:
industry practices and outcomes (e.g., lost economic opportunities)
product development and marketing (which games get made)
greater social inequality


is discrimination valid?

Often easier to interact/exchange with in-group members than with outgroup members
for outgroups, we may need to understand and negotiate different rules and expectations


how do in-group biases undermine benefits to society?

power differentials, marginalised groups, stratified society
lose access to useful ideas and perspectives

Discrimination may contrast with other cultural values
e.g., in Australia: equality and tolerance


what is the social identity perspective to discrimination?

Our group memberships contribute to how we feel about ourselves (self-esteem or positive self-regard)
Group memberships are defined in relation to other groups
“in-group” implies “outgroup”
a specific comparison group (e.g., Australians v. New Zealanders)
a more general “not us”
We favour in-groups over outgroups
good in-group outcomes contribute to our positive self-regard
findings in real settings are mixed-we don’t always favour in-groups


what are the intergroup approaches to reducing prejudice?

Changing group interactions and boundaries:

Contact hypothesis
Social identity approach


what are the individual approaches to reducing prejudice?

Target prejudiced beliefs and emotions:

Awareness raising
Normative influence


What are the intergroup approaches to reducing prejudice?

The Contact Hypothesis (Allport, 1954)

Having members of antagonistic groups interact

Optimal conditions of contact:
Equal status between groups
Common goals
Intergroup cooperation/no competition context
Support of legitimate authorities, laws or customs


What is the contact hypothesis?

Review of research (Pettigrew, 1998)
prejudice reduction is greatest when all conditions present
some reduction is achieved when only some conditions present
the potential to become friends with outgroup members is an additional contact condition


what are the extensions of the contact hypothesis?

Extended contact
Imagined contact


what is a social identity approach?

cross categorisation


define decategorisation

downplay group identity and focus on individual identity

Get people to think about individuals rather than groups
Personal ID

We may reduce our own prejudice but we may be less aware of the broader prejudice that endures
Structural disadvantages


define recatetorisation

downplay separate group identities by focusing on shared superordinate group


define cross categorisation

identify shared/common characteristics and identities


define integration

recognize both group differences and commonalities


define interdependence

people can overcome prejudice in the short-term when their own outcomes depend on it
e.g., performing on a joint work-task
repeated experiences over time can change long-term prejudiced views


define counter-stereotypes

Present different, non-stereotypical images of group members
highlight group members who don’t fit stereotypes
highlight activities common in group that don’t fit stereotypes


define awareness raising

Make people aware of their own stereotypes or prejudice

Tell people to suppress stereotypes (often counterproductive)

Tell people to remember their past prejudiced behaviour
can induce guilt and hence willingness to repair relationships

Make people aware of stereotypes they take for granted…