Social psychologist Kurt Lewin developed the f____ f____ a____ model
force field analysis model.
One side of the force field analysis model represents the d_____ f____that push organisations towards a new state of affairs. The other side represents the r_____ f____ that maintain the status quo
DRIVING FORCES RESTRAINING FORCES
these forces push organisations towards a new state of affairs. (in Force field analysis) d_____ f____
these factors tend to maintain the status quo (in Force field analysis) r____ f_____
new competitors or technologies, evolving workforce expectations or a host of other environmental chnages are all examples of possible d____ f___ (in Force field analysis)
commonly referred to as "resistence to change" these forces block the chnage process.
"divine discontent" is a key feature of successful organisations because it increased d_____ f____
Lewin's force field model emphasises that effective change occurs by u_____ the current situation, moving t a desired condition and then r_____ the system
This involves producing disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces. u______
this occurs when the organisation's systems and structures are aligned with the desired behaviours r_________
Subtle forms of resistance to change potentially create the greatest obstacles to change because they are not as v____
change efforts never die because of d____ c____ , they are more likely to be impacted by s___ forms of r____
direct confrontation subtle forms of resistence. Die the death of a thousand cuts.
As economist John Kenneth Galbraith once quipped: ‘Faced with the choice between c____ one’s mind and p____ that there is no need to do so, almost everyone gets busy on the proof ’
changing ones mind and proving that there is no need to do it.
Change agents typically view resistance as an unreasonable, dysfunctional and irrational response to a desirable initiative. They do not tend to consider that the causes of resistance may be traced back to their own ____ or _____
actions or inaction.
The emerging view is that resistance to chaneg is a u___ i____ rather than a impediment to change
resistance aids change agents in three ways: 1. s_____ (w____ s____) 2. c_____ c____ 3. should be viewed in the context of j____ and m____
1. signal (warning system) - that the change agent has not sufficiently addressed the underlying conditions that support effective organisational change. 2. constructive conflict (improve decision making). 3. justic and motivation - form of voice that improved procedural justice. motivational -because it engages people to think about the change strategy and process.
Countries that handle change the best:
india, New Zealand, Australia, Unitied states.
Countries that handle change the least
France, South Korea, JApan
Apart from personality and values, employees resist chnage due to four elements in the MARS model: 1. lack m_____ to change because they believe the change will f____, is the w___ action or will be c___ to them. 2. person's i____ to chnage due to inadequate skills and k___. 3. employees lack r___ c___ about the change. 4. situation u____ their attempts to change.
1. lack MOTIVATION to change because they believe the change will FAIL, is the WRONG action or will be COSTLY to them. 2. person's INABILITY to change due to inadequate skills and KNOWLEDGE. 3. employees lack ROLE CLARITY about the change. 4. situation UNDERMINES their attempts to change.
This reason that peope oppose change = D____ C____ When employees lack committment to (or even compliance with) a chnage initiative because their personal cost-benefit analysis calculation is negative rather than possible. They believe the benefits for them are trivial.
This reason that peope oppose change = When employees resist change because it is a threat to their self-esteem. s___ f____
This reason that peope oppose change = Employees feel some degree of uncertainty because uncertainty puts employees at risk. F___ of the u____
Fear of the unknown
This reason that peope oppose change = When change forces employees out of their comfort zones and requires them to invest time and energy in learning new role patterns. B____ r____
This reason that peope oppose change = When conformity to existing team norms discourages employees from accepting organisational change. I____ T____ D_____
Incongruent Team Dynamics
This reason that peope oppose change = When rewards, information systems, patterns of authority, career paths, selection criteria and other systems are misaligned with the change. I_____ O____ S____
Incongruent Organisational systems
Direct costs, Saving face, fear of the unknown, breaking routines, incongruent team dynamics and incongruent organisational systems are all reasons why
employees resist organisational change.
_____ occurs when the driving forces are stronger than the restraining forces.
Unfreezing will occur by making driving forces _____, ____ or removing the ____ ____, or combining both
will occur by making driving forces STRONGER, WEAKENING or removing the RESTRAINING FORCES, or combining both
Why does the option of increasing driving forces rarely work?
Because the action of increasing the driving forces alone is usually met with an equal and opposing increase in restraining forces. (antagonism threatens the change effort by producing tension and conflict in the organisation).
What is the problem with the option of attempting to weaken or remove the restraining forces? No ______ for change. Creates an u_____ road, but does not m____ anyone to go there.
It provides no motivation for change. Creates an unobstructed road, but does not motivate anyone to go there.