The study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organisations. Looks at employee behaviour, decisions, perceptions and emotional responses.
Groups of people who work interdependently towards some purpose (by communicating, coordinating and collaborating).
This Australian researcher was foundational in understanding the human relations side of Organisational Research
This is considered the 'ultimate variable' in organisational behaviour.
organisational effectiveness. (although different theories will use different labels - organisational performance, success, goodness, competitiveness, excellence.
Why is goal attainment discredited
Any leadership team could set corporate goals that are easy to achieve, yet put he organisation out of business.
This perspective of organisational effectiveness views organisations as complex organisms that 'live' within an external environment. O___ S____
Open Systems. Word open = permeable (interaction with the external environment).
As ____ ____, organisations depends on the external environment for resources, including raw materials, job applicants, financial resources, information and equipment. External environment also consists of rules and expectations (e.g., laws and cultural norms).
Inside an organisation are numerous _______, such as departments, teams, informal groups, work processes, technological configurations and other elements
According to open systems perspective, organisations are effective when they maintain a good 'fit' with their _____ _____
These three strategies help a organisational to remain a g______ f____ with their environment. 1) put resources where they are most useful to adapt and align with external environment. 2) anticipating change in the environment and reconfigure 3) move into different environments if current is too challenging.
Open systems perspective also considers how well an organisation transforms _____ into _____. The most common indicator of this internal transformation process is ______ _____
inputs into outputs. Organisational Efficiency (also called productivity). Which is a ratio of inputs to outcomes.
This OB perspective views knowledge as the main driver of competitive advantage. Specifically, organisational learning is founded on the idea that organisational effectiveness depends on the organisation's capacity to acquire, share, use and store valuable knowledge
O______ L______ P_____
Organisational Learning Perspective (also called knowledge management)
The organisational learning perspective views _____ as a resource
Knowledge (associated with organisational learning perspective) exists in three forms, collectively known as
______ capital. (Human Capital, Structural Capital, Relational Capital)
______ capital = The knowledge, skills and abilities that employees carry around in their heads (knowledge that people possess and generate)
human capital. (valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and no-substitutable). = skills, experience, creativity.
_____ capital = knowledge captured and retained in an organisation's systems and structures.
STRUCTURAL capital (also known as organisational capital)
Human capital + structural capital + relationship capital = intellectual capital.
______ capital = value derived from an organisation's relationships with its customers, suppliers and others who provide added mutual value for the organisation. I
RELATIONAL capital (includes organisation's goodwill, brand image and the combination of relationships that organisational members have with people outside the organisation). Values derived from satisfied customers, reliable suppliers, etc.
Organisations nurture intellectual capital through four organisational learning processes: k_____ aquisition, s_____, u___ and s____.
knowledge AQUISITION (individual learning, environment scanning, grafting, experimentation).
knowledge SHARING (communication, training, information systems, observation).
knowledge USE (knowledge awareness, sense making, autonomy, empowerment).
knowledge STORAGE (human memory, documentation, practices/habits, databases)
knowledge ______ includes extracting information and ideas from external environment. (e.g., grafting, experimentation, training).
knowledge ______ - distributing knowledge to others across the organisation.
knowledge _____ - applying knowledge in ways that add value to the organisation. Requires autonomy, a culture that encourages experimentation and open communications.
knowledge ______ - includes any means by which knowledge is held for later retrieval. Creates organisational memory.
The capacity of employees who have sufficient foundation to recieve and apply new knowledge. Requires enough requisite knowledge.
The storage and preservation of intellectual capital. Includes knowledge that employees possess as well as knowledge embedded in the organisation's systems and structures
The storage and preservation of intellectual capital
a) Human Capital
b) Intellectual Memory
c) Organisational Memory
d) Organisational Capital
______ removes knowledge that no longer adds value and, in fact, may undermine the organisation's effectiveness
This perspective is founded on the belief that human capital, the knowledge, skills and abilities that employees carry around in their heads is an important source of competitive advantage of organisations. This approach identifies a specific bundle of systems and structures that generate the most value from this human capital
HPWP (High-Performance Work Practices) Perspective
strengthening employee decision making and giving them more autonomy over their work activities. (self-directed teams) are factors of _____
HPWP (High performance Work Practices)
The third factor of HPWP is the d______ of employee c_____
DEVELOPMENT of employee COMPETENCE. (recruiting, selective and trainign people in order that he company employs people with the relevant skills
The fourth factor of high-performance work practice involves linking h__-p____ and s____ development with various forms of f_____ and n__-f______ rewards
high performance and skills development to the various forms of financial and non-financial rewards valued by employees.