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Flashcards in Unit 5 Deck (23)
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1

Informal fallacy

Popular but invalid form of argument

2

Fallacy of distraction

points to information that is irrelevant to the conclusion

3

Ipse dixit

appeal to authority

4

Ad populum

appeal to the majority

5

Ad baculum

appeal to force

a thinly-veiled threat often used by parents

6

Ad hominem

verbal attack on a person rather than his argument

7

Bulverism

attacking a position by pointing out how the arguer came to hold it

8

Tu quoque

points to an inconsistency between a person's argument and behavior

9

Ad ignorantiam

an argument from lack of evidence

10

Chronological snobbery

an argument based merely  on the passage of time

11

Fallacies of ambiguity

Arguments that confuse the real issue with multiple, vague, or otherwise unclear meanings

12

Equivocation

Changing the definition of a term in the middle of an argument

13

Fallacy of Accent

Alters the meaning of a statement through changed emphasis

14

Fallacy of Amphiboly

A vagueness of grammar that disguises or alters meaning

15

Fallacy of Composition

Transferring attributes from parts to whole

16

Fallacy of Division

Transferring attributes from whole to part

17

Fallacies of Form

Arguments that fail to

establish their conclusions

because of a weakness in logical structure

18

Circular reasoning

Secretly assuming what you are trying to prove

19

Post hoc ergo propter hoc

Improperly assuming that a sequence in time implies a cause and effect

20

Either/or

Making an argument based on a false dilemma

21

Complex Question

A question crafted to exclude any possible legitimate response

22

Apriorism

Hasty generalization

23

How can you identify fallacies?

Ask yourself

what the conclusion is and how it is reached

  1. What is he trying to prove?
  2. How is he trying to prove it?