The science and art of reasoning well.
Drawing proper conclusions from other information
Law of Excluded Middle
Any statement is either true or false.
Law of Identity
If a statement is true, then it is true.
Law of Noncontradiction
A statement cannot be both true and false.
Operations of thinking, includes:
deduction (categorical and propositional logic)
Proper modes of reasoning, includes:
Reasoning with probability
from examples or experience
to general rules
Reasoning with certainty
from premises to conclusions
A syllogism is a deductive argument with two premises and three terms
expressed precisely in words
Gives the meaning of a term
Definitions show _________________.
Definitions remove _______________.
Lexical Definitions show ______________ and reduce ________________ and are found in a dictionary.
Definitions reduce _________________ and provides a precising definition.
Definitions increase ________________.
What is a stipulative definition?
A definition for
a new word that is invented
or an existing word that is applied in a new way
Definitions can explain concepts ___________.
(accepting a theory about the term being defined)
Definitions can influence ____________.
(persuasive definitions persuade the listener one way or another toward the term being defined)
A term that is
than the original term and includes it
A term that is
than the original term and is included by it.
What does it mean to increase extension of a term?
What does it mean to increase intension of a term?
What are the 3 Methods of Defining a term?
1. synonyms - using similar words
3. genus and difference - (example: Backpack; genus - bag, difference - carried on the back)
What are the 6 Rules for defining by Genus and Difference?
1. State essential attributes
2. Not circular
3. Not too broad or narrow
4. Not unclear or figurative
5. Stated positively, if possible
6. Same part of speech as the term