Unit 1: Terms and Definitions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Terms and Definitions Deck (27)
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1

Define Logic

The science and art of reasoning well.

2

Define reasoning

Drawing proper conclusions from other information

3

Law of Excluded Middle

Any statement is either true or false.

4

Law of Identity

If a statement is true, then it is true.

5

Law of Noncontradiction

A statement cannot be both true and false.

6

Formal Logic

Operations of thinking, includes: 

deduction (categorical and propositional logic)

induction

7

Informal Logic

Proper modes of reasoning, includes:

terms

statements

informal fallacies

8

Induction

Reasoning with probability

from examples or experience

to general rules

9

Deduction

Reasoning with certainty

from premises to conclusions

10

Syllogisms

 

A syllogism is a deductive argument with two premises and three terms

 

11

Term

expressed precisely in words

12

Definition

Gives the meaning of a term

13

Definitions show _________________.

relationships

14

Definitions remove _______________.

ambiguity

15

Lexical Definitions show ______________ and reduce ________________ and are found in a dictionary.

relationship

ambiguity

16

Definitions reduce _________________ and provides a precising definition.

vagueness

17

Definitions increase ________________.

vocabulary

18

What is a stipulative definition?

A definition for

a new word that is invented

or an existing word that is applied in a new way

19

Definitions can explain concepts ___________.

theoretically

(accepting a theory about the term being defined)

20

Definitions can influence ____________.

attitudes

(persuasive definitions persuade the listener one way or another toward the term being defined)

21

Define Genus

A term that is

more general,

broad,

or abstract

than the original term and includes it

22

Define Species

A term that is

more specific,

narrow,

or concrete

than the original term and is included by it.

23

What does it mean to increase extension of a term?

Greater extension

means

more members

more general

24

What does it mean to increase intension of a term?

Greater intention

means

more concreteness

less members

25

What are the 3 Methods of Defining a term?

1. synonyms - using similar words

2. example

3. genus and difference - (example: Backpack; genus - bag, difference - carried on the back)

26

What are the 6 Rules for defining by Genus and Difference?

1. State essential attributes 

2. Not circular 

3. Not too broad or narrow

4. Not unclear or figurative

5. Stated positively, if possible 

6. Same part of speech as the term

27