Define argument

A ** set of statements**,

** one** of which appears to be

**or**

__implied__

__supported____by the others__

The _____________ of an argument is the statement that appears to be implied by the other statements in the argument, which are called ____________.

conclusion

premises

Define syllogism

A deductive argument

with ** two premises** and

__three terms__What is a categorical syllogism?

A syllogism consisting of

__three statements__

in categorical form

What is the major term of a syllogism?

The predicate of the conclusion

and is used in one premise

What is the minor term of a syllogism?

The subject of the conclusion

and is used in the other premise

What is the middle term of a syllogism?

The term that is found once in each premise

What is the major premise?

The premise that contains the major term

What is the minor premise?

The premise that contains the minor term

What are the 5 steps

to put a syllogism into standard form?

1. Find the conclusion

2. Find the major term

3. Find the major premise

4. Find the minor premise

5. Write the syllogism in standard order

The ____________ of a syllogism

is a representation of it, having statements in standard order with standard abbreviations of its terms.

schema

The _________ of a syllogism

is a three-letter description of the types of categorical statements it contains when arranged in standard order

mood

The __________ of a syllogism

is the number from 1 to 4

identifying the placement of its middle term

figure

A syllogism is __________

if and only if

the premises imply the conclusion

valid

A _______________ to a syllogism

is a syllogism of the same form as the original,

but with obviously true premises

and an obviously false conclusion,

in order to show the original to be invalid.

counterexample

What is a distributed term?

A term that refers to all members of its category

What term is distributed in the following statements: All S are P

No S are P

Some S are P

Some S are not P

__ All S are P__ - S is distributed

** No S are P** - Both S and P

__ Some S are P __- Both are undistributed

__ Some S are not P__ - P is distributed

What are the 5 rules for testing the validity of syllogisms?

1. ** Middle term** distributed in at least one premise.

2. __ Distributed__ in

**, then distributed in**

__conclusion__**.**

__premise__3. Cannot have ** two negative premises**.

4. Cannot have a __ negative premise__ and

__affirmative conclusion.__5. Cannot have __two__** affirmative** premises and a

**.**

__negative conclusion__What is the Fallacy of the Undistributed Middle?

When the middle term is ** undistributed in both premises**, then no necessary connection is being made between the premises.

What is the Fallacy of an Illicit Major?

If the ** major term** is

**in the**

__distributed__**, but**

__conclusion__**in the**

__not__**.**

__premise__What is the Fallacy of the Illicit Minor?

If the ** minor term** is

**in the**

__distributed__**, but**

__conclusion__**.**

__not in the premise__What is the Fallacy of Two Negative Premises?

Any syllogism that has only ** E** or

**statements as**

__O__**.**

__premises__What is the Fallacy of Two Affirmative Premises and a Negative Conclusion?

** One premise** has to be

**if you have a**

__negative__**.**

__negative conclusion__