Unit 2: Statements and their Relationships Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2: Statements and their Relationships Deck (33)
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1

Define Statements

A sentence that is either true or false

2

What type of sentences are not statements?

questions

commands

and nonsense sentences

are not statements because they do not have a truth value.

3

What is a nonsense statement?

A statement that

contradicts itself

and

cannot be identified as true or false

4

What is a self-supporting statement?

A statement whose

truth value

can be determined from the statement itself

5

Self-supporting statements can be divided into three categories. What are they?

1. Self-reports

2. Statements that are true or false by logical structure

3. Statements that are true or false by definition.

6

What is a self-contradiction?

A statement that is false due to its logical structure.

7

What is a supported statement?

A statement whose

truth value

depends

on evidence or information from outside itself

8

What are sources used for supported statements?

Authority

Experience

Observation

9

What are consistent statements?

Two statements

that can

both be true at the same time

10

What are the four major relationships

with self-supporting statements

and supported statements?

1. Consistency - true at the same time

2. Implication - the first requires the truth of the second

3. Logical equivalence - the first implies the second and the second implies the first

4. Independence - Neither statement can imply the other

11

What are the 3 types of disagreements?

1. Real Disagreements - actual inconsistency: they can't be true at the same time

2. Apparent Disagreement - a difference of opinion  

3. Verbal Disagreement - a misunderstanding 

12

To analyze statements using categorical logic, translate them into a form that uses the ____________.

verb of being

13

How do you change the verb of being to a predicate?

1. Identify entire subject

2. Choose the proper "to be" verb 

3. Rewrite the entire predicate as a predicate nominate.

NOTE: Maintain the tense of verbs (past, present, future) when translating statements to standard form.

14

What are categorical statements?

Statements that

affirm or deny

something about a given subject

15

What are the two parts of a statement?

Subject and Predicate

16

The quantity identifies whether the statement is _______________ or ___________

and quality identifies whether a statement is ______________ or ________________.

universal (all and no) or particular (some)

 

affirmative (all or some) or negative (no and some...not)

17

Identify their Quantity and Quality:

1. All S are P

2. No S are P

3. Some S are P

4. Some S are not P

1. Universal / Affirmative

2. Universal / Negative

3. Particular/ Affirmative

4. Particular/ Negative

18

What is the Square of Opposition?

A diagram that demonstrates how

A, E, I and O

statements are related

19

What are A statements?

All S are P

20

What are E statements?

No S are not P

21

What are I statements?

Some S are P

22

What are O statements?

Some S are not P

23

Which A, E, I, O statements are contradictory?

A contradicts O

E contradicts I

24

Two statements are in _________________

if and only if

they always have opposite truth values

contradiction

25

Two statements are ______________

if and only if

they can both be false but cannot both be true

contrary

26

Contrary statements only exist

between _____ and ______ statements.

Universal A and E

27

Subcontrariety is the relationship

that exists between ____ and ____ statements.

I and O

28

Two statements are ______________

if and only if

both can be true but both cannot be false

subcontraries

29

________________ is the relationship

between a universal and particular statement

of the same quality,

in which the truth of the universal necessitates the truth of the particular.

subimplication

30

_______________ is the relationship

between a universal and particular statement

of the same quality,

in which the falsity of the particular necessitates the falsity of the universal

superimplication