Why do scientists peer review each others work?
To rigorously check each others work.
This makes results more valid.
Helps to prevent false claims.
Why are drugs first tested on healthy volunteers during clinical trials?
To check that the drug is safe
Give examples of diseases caused by protists (parasites).
Who discovered penicillin?
Do antibiotics kill pathogens? Which type?
Explain how overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in a population of bacteria.
Random Mutations cause Variation in a population of bacteria e.g. some are antibiotic resistant.
Antibiotic resistant bateria have an Advantage
Those bacteria Survive and Reproduce and pass on Genes.
Future generations will be antibiotic resistant.
(Red Monkeys Viciously Attack Smelly Red Gorrilas)
Give examples of viral diseases.
How is measles spread?
Droplets - coughs/sneezes.
If the body is infected by pathgoens _________ will react.
white blood cells
Give examples of human diseases caused by fungi.
Why do vaccines only protect against one specific pathogen?
Antibodies are specific
True or false - bacteria are the same size as animal cells.
False - they are about 100 times smaller.
What is herd immunity and how does it work?
Where 95% of the population is vaccinated against a disease.
This prevents disease spreading as fewer people are able to pass it on.
What is the vector for the protist that causes malaria in humans?
What are the complications of measles?
Pneumonia (chest infection)
Encephalitis (brain infection)
How do bacteria make us feel unwell?
1. They produce toxins.
2. They damage cells.
3. They reproduce rapidly.
How does salmonella spread?
Contaminated food (undercooked chicken/eggs)
What is the body's first line of defence against pathogen infeciton? (STEMS)
Skin - barrier that heals.
Tears - contain lysozyme enzyme to kill bacteria.
Earwax - kills bacteria
Mucus - lining lungs traps pathogens
Stomach acid - kills swallowed pathogens.
How can we reduce the spread of disease?
1. Be hygeinic
2. Destroy vectors
3. Isolate infected individuals.
4. Vaccinate people.
Give examples of bacterial diseases
How can rose black spot be treated?
Use of fungicides.
Remove and destroy infected leaves.
How was penicillin discovered?
Alexander Fleming noticed a clear zone around fungi that was growing on an agar plate that he was using to grow bacteria on.
What type of pathogen causes rose black spot?
Late stage HIV is called...
What are the symptoms of salmonella?
Gonorrhoea is caused by which type of pathogen?
How do fungi cause disease?
They produce thread-like hyphae.
Hyphae grow and penetrate skin/plant tissues causing disease.
Hyphae produce spores which can spread to other plants.
Identify the 3 stages of drug testing
1. Human cell and tissue testing (pre-clinical)
2. Animal testing (pre-clinical)
3. Clinical trials (human testing)
How do viruses make us feel unwell?
1. They replicate rapidly inside cells (take over cellular machinary)
2. They eventually burst out of cells damaging them.
3. Sometimes they produce toxins.
Do painkillers kill pathogens?
No they just relieve symptoms until the immune system kills them