Unit 4.3 Communicable diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4.3 Communicable diseases Deck (73)
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1

Why do scientists peer review each others work?

To rigorously check each others work.

This makes results more valid.

Helps to prevent false claims.

 

2

Why are drugs first tested on healthy volunteers during clinical trials?

To check that the drug is safe

3

Give examples of diseases caused by protists (parasites).

Malaria

Giardia

Lung Worm

4

Who discovered penicillin?

Alexander Fleming

5

Do antibiotics kill pathogens? Which type?

Yes

ONLY bacteria

6

Explain how overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in a population of bacteria.

Random Mutations cause Variation in a population of bacteria e.g. some are antibiotic resistant.

Antibiotic resistant bateria have an Advantage

Those bacteria Survive and Reproduce and pass on Genes.

Future generations will be antibiotic resistant.

(Red Monkeys Viciously Attack Smelly Red Gorrilas)

7

Give examples of viral diseases.

Measles

Mumps

Rubella

Influenza

Ebola

Polio

8

How is measles spread?

Droplets - coughs/sneezes.

9

If the body is infected by pathgoens _________ will react.

white blood cells

10

Give examples of human diseases caused by fungi.

Athlete's foot

Thrush

11

Why do vaccines only protect against one specific pathogen?

Antibodies are specific

12

True or false - bacteria are the same size as animal cells.

False - they are about 100 times smaller.

13

What is herd immunity and how does it work?

Where 95% of the population is vaccinated against a disease.

This prevents disease spreading as fewer people are able to pass it on.

14

What is the vector for the protist that causes malaria in humans?

Mosquitoes

15

What are the complications of measles?

Pneumonia (chest infection)

Encephalitis (brain infection)

16

How do bacteria make us feel unwell?

1. They produce toxins.

2. They damage cells.

3. They reproduce rapidly.

17

How does salmonella spread?

Contaminated food (undercooked chicken/eggs)

 

18

What is the body's first line of defence against pathogen infeciton? (STEMS)

Skin - barrier that heals.

Tears - contain lysozyme enzyme to kill bacteria.

Earwax - kills bacteria

Mucus - lining lungs traps pathogens

Stomach acid - kills swallowed pathogens.

19

How can we reduce the spread of disease?

1. Be hygeinic

2. Destroy vectors

3. Isolate infected individuals.

4. Vaccinate people.

20

Give examples of bacterial diseases

Tonsilitis

Plague

Tuberculosis (TB)

Salmonella

21

How can rose black spot be treated?

Use of fungicides.

Remove and destroy infected leaves.

22

How was penicillin discovered?

Alexander Fleming noticed a clear zone around fungi that was growing on an agar plate that he was using to grow bacteria on.

23

What type of pathogen causes rose black spot?

Fungus

24

Late stage HIV is called...

AIDs

25

What are the symptoms of salmonella?

Fever

Stomach cramps

Vomitting

Diarrhoea

26

Gonorrhoea is caused by which type of pathogen?

Bacteria.

27

How do fungi cause disease?

They produce thread-like hyphae.

Hyphae grow and penetrate skin/plant tissues causing disease.

Hyphae produce spores which can spread to other plants.

28

Identify the 3 stages of drug testing

1. Human cell and tissue testing (pre-clinical)

2. Animal testing (pre-clinical)

3. Clinical trials (human testing)

29

How do viruses make us feel unwell?

1. They replicate rapidly inside cells (take over cellular machinary)

2. They eventually burst out of cells damaging them.

3. Sometimes they produce toxins.

30

Do painkillers kill pathogens?

No they just relieve symptoms until the immune system kills them