4.5 Hormones in human reproduction and contraception Flashcards Preview

11B1 - AQA Biology Trilogy > 4.5 Hormones in human reproduction and contraception > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.5 Hormones in human reproduction and contraception Deck (36)
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1

What is the menstrual cycle?

the monthly release of an egg from a woman's ovaries

2

At puberty what sort of hormones begin to be produced?

sex hormones

3

Which hormone is produced in women in at puberty?

oestrogen is produced in the ovaries

4

Which hormone is produced in men in at puberty?

testosterone is produced in the testes

5

Oestrogen is involved in which cycle?

menstrual cycle

6

Testosterone causes which cell to be produced by the testes?

sperm

7

What happens in stage 1 of the menstrual cycle?

uterus lining breaks down for about 4 days

8

What happens in stage 2 of the menstrual cycle?

uterus lining builds up again (day 4-14)

9

What happens in stage 3 of the menstrual cycle?

an egg develops and is released at day 14

10

What happens in stage 4 of the menstrual cycle?

the uterus lining is maintained from day 14 to day 28

11

What is the release of an egg from the ovaries called?

ovulation

12

What happens after day 28 o the menstrual cycle if not egg is fertilised

stage 1 - uterus lining breaks down and comes out of the body (period)

13

FSH has two jobs, what are they?

- causes an egg to mature (in a follicle) in one of the ovaries
- causes the ovaries to produce oestrogen

14

Oestrogen has three jobs, what are they?

- causes the lining of the uterus to grow
- stimulates (causes) the release of LH from the pituitary gland
- inhibits (stops) production of FSH from the pituitary gland

15

LH has one jobs, what is it?

- stimulates (causes) the release of an egg form the ovary at day 14

16

Progesterone has two jobs, what are they?

- maintains the ulerus lining for the 2nd half of the cycle
- inhibits (stops) FSH and LH production

17

Where is FSH produced?

pituitary gland

18

Where is LH produced?

pituitary gland

19

Where is oestrogen produced?

ovaries

20

Where is progesterone produced?

in the ovaries by the remains of the follicle after egg release

21

How is pregnancy prevented if a man and woman have sex?

contraception

22

Why is oestrogen used in contraceptive methods?

it inhibits FHS so no eggs develop

23

Why is progesterone used in contraceptive methods?

it causes a thick mucus to prevent sperm reaching the egg

24

What sort of contraceptive is the combined contraceptive pill (with oestrogen and progesterone)?

Oral contraceptive

25

How effective is the pill as a contraceptive?

99%

26

What are the side effects of using the pill?

Headaches and nausea

27

Does the oral combined contraceptive pill protect against STI's?

No

28

Why might some women take the progesterone only pill?

it has fewer side effects

29

Other than the pill, what other forms of contraception use hormones?

- contraceptive patch (oestrogen and progesterone), lasts 1 week
- implant (progesterone only), lasts 3 years
- injection (progesterone only), lasts 2-3 months
- intrauterine device (IUD) inserted into the uterus to kill sperm and prevent the egg from implanting

30

What are the two types of IUD?

- plastic - release progesterone
- copper - kill sperm