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Flashcards in twentieth century Deck (49)
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1

rapid slide up or down a scale

glissando

2

using the wood of bow instead of hair on a violin

col lento

3

combination of 2 chords sounded at the same time

Polychord

4

approach to pitch organization using 2 or more keys at one time

Polytonality

5

absence of tonality, or key

Atonality

6

use of 2 or more contrasting or independent rhythms at the same time, often found in music after 1900

Polyrhythm

7

motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch

Ostinato

8

scale made up of 5 different tones, used in folk music and music of the far east

Pentatonic scale

9

scale made up of 6 different tones, each a whole step away from the next, that conveys no definite sense of tonality; often found in the music of Debussy and his followers

Whole-tone scale

10

In German, speech-voice; a style

Sprechstimme

11

Method of composing in which all pitches of a composition are derived from a special ordering of the twelve chromatic tones (tone row or set); developed by Schoenberg in the early 1920s

Twelve-tone system

12

particular ordering of the 12 chromatic tones, from which all pitches in a 12-tone composition are derived

tone row

13

1. In jazz, a pattern in which one voice or instrument is answered by another voice, instrument, or group of instruments 2. Performance style in which the phrases of

call and response

14

creation of music at the same time as it is performed

improvisation

15

– jazz style that was developed in the 1920s and flourished between 1935 and 1945, played mainly by “big bands”; also, verb for what jazz performers do when they combine a steady beat and precision with a lilt, a sense of relaxation, and vitality

swing

16

in vocal blues and jazz, a harmonic framework that is 12 bars in length, usually involving only 3 basic chords: tonic (I), subdominant (IV), and dominant (V)

12 bar blues

17

In New Orleans or Dixieland jazz, the group of melodic instruments that improvise on a melody, supported by the rhythm section

front line

18

Vocalization of a melodic line with nonsense syllables, used in jazz

scat singing

19

– typically, a large band made up of 14 or 15 musicians grouped in 3 sections: saxophones, brasses, and rhythm.

swing band

20

What are the characteristics of following styles of music impressionism

stress on tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity.

21

What are the characteristics of following styles of music Neoclassicism

marked by emotional restraint, balance, and clarity; uses musical forms and stylistic features of earlier period (particularly 18th century); “Back to Bach”

22

What are the characteristics of following styles of music Primitivism

deliberate evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds

23

What are the characteristics of following styles of music expressionism

expresses intense, subjective emotions. Uses distortion to shock the audience

24

What are the characteristics of following styles of music ragtime

piano music in duple meter; syncopated melody with a “oom-pah” accompaniment (stride piano)

25

What are the characteristics of following styles of music blues

lyric and musical phrase a a’ b; harmonic structure based on the 12-bars blues; baroque ground bass

26

What are the characteristics of following styles of music New Orleans (or Dixieland)

often based on a march or church melody, ragtime tunes, popular songs, or 12-bar blues

27

What are the characteristics of following styles of music swing

arranged music, big bands, saxophone became the leading solo instrument, percussionists had a more prominent role, developed in 1920s and flourished through 1940s

28

What are the characteristics of following styles of music musical theatre

2 acts, 2nd act is shorter, songs usually AABA (verse and chorus); more spoken dialogue, more collaborative, and simpler harmonies, melodies, and form than the opera. Operetta or comic opera

29

Describe the characteristics of 20th century “classical” music: tone color, melody and harmony, rhythm

a. Tone color: woodwinds, percussion, played at extreme ranges
b. Melody: unpredictable and not based on major/minor tonalities
c. Harmony: no distinction between consonance and dissonance, altering tonal systems
d. Rhythm: increasing emphasis on rhythmic irregularity, changing meter, polyrhythm, and ostinato

30

Describe the characteristics of jazz music

e. Blended elements from African, American, and European culture. Truly American music. Based on call and response